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Rise & Fall of Israel’s Kingdom

(Category 7 of 16)

page 319

CHAPTER 20 References

1 a1 Kin.
15:18, 20;
2 Kin. 6:24
b1 Kin. 16:24;
2 Kin. 6:24
6 1pleasing
10 a1 Kin. 19:2;
2 Kin. 6:31
1Lit. at my
11 aProv. 27:1;
[Eccl. 7:8] 12 a1 Kin.
20:16 1Lit.
booths or
13 a1 Kin.

Ahab Defeats the Syrians


1 Now aBen-Hadad the king of Syria gathered all his forces together; thirty-two kings were with him, with horses and chariots. And he went up and besieged bSamaria, and made war against it.
2 Then he sent messengers into the city to Ahab king of Israel, and said to him, “Thus says Ben-Hadad:
3 ‘Your silver and your gold are mine; your loveliest wives and children are mine.’ ”
4 And the king of Israel answered and said, “My lord, O king, just as you say, I and all that I have are yours.”
5 Then the messengers came back and said, “Thus speaks Ben-Hadad, saying, ‘Indeed I have sent to you, saying, “You shall deliver to me your silver and your gold, your wives and your children”;
6 ‘but I will send my servants to you tomorrow about this time, and they shall search your house and the houses of your servants. And it shall be, that whatever is 1pleasant in your eyes, they will put it in their hands and take it.’ ”
7 So the king of Israel called all the elders of the land, and said, “Notice, please, and see how this man seeks trouble, for he sent to me for my wives, my children, my silver, and my gold; and I did not deny him.”
8 And all the elders and all the people said to him, “Do not listen or consent.”
9 Therefore he said to the messengers of Ben-Hadad, “Tell my lord the king, ‘All that you sent for to your servant the first time I will do, but this thing I cannot do.’ ” And the messengers departed and brought back word to him.
10 Then Ben-Hadad sent to him and said, a“The gods do so to me, and more also, if enough dust is left of Samaria for a handful for each of the people 1who follow me.”
11 So the king of Israel answered and said, “Tell him, ‘Let not the one who puts on his armor aboast like the one who takes it off.’
12 And it happened when Ben- Hadad heard this message, as he and the kings were adrinking at the 1command post, that he said to his servants, “Get ready.” And they got ready to attack the city.
13 Suddenly a prophet approached Ahab king of Israel, saying, “Thus says the LORD: ‘Have you seen all this great multitude? Behold, aI will deliver it into your hand today, and you shall know that I am the LORD.’ ”
14 So Ahab said, “By whom?” And

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1 KINGS 20:15

he said, “Thus says the LORD: ‘By the young leaders of the provinces.’ ” Then he said, “Who will set the battle in order?” And he answered, “You.”
15 Then he mustered the young leaders of the provinces, and there were two hundred and thirty-two; and after them he mustered all the people, all the children of Israel— seven thousand.
16 So they went out at noon. Meanwhile Ben-Hadad and the thirty-two kings helping him were agetting drunk at the command post.
17 The young leaders of the provinces went out first. And Ben- Hadad sent out a patrol, and they told him, saying, “Men are coming out of Samaria!”
18 So he said, “If they have come out for peace, take them alive; and if they have come out for war, take them alive.”
19 Then these young leaders of the provinces went out of the city with the army which followed them.
20 And each one killed his man; so the Syrians fled, and Israel pursued them; and Ben-Hadad the king of Syria escaped on a horse with the cavalry.
21 Then the king of Israel went out and attacked the horses and chariots, and killed the Syrians with a great slaughter.
22 And the prophet came to the king of Israel and said to him, “Go, strengthen yourself; take note, and see what you should do, afor 1in the spring of the year the king of Syria will come up against you.”

The Syrians Again Defeated

23 Then the servants of the king of Syria said to him, “Their gods are gods of the hills. Therefore they were stronger than we; but if we fight against them in the plain, surely we will be stronger than they.
24 “So do this thing: Dismiss the kings, each from his position, and put captains in their 1places;
25 “and you shall muster an army like the army 1that you have lost, horse for horse and chariot for chariot. Then we will fight against them in the plain; surely we will be stronger than they.” And he listened to their voice and did so.
26 So it was, in the spring of the year, that Ben-Hadad mustered the Syrians and went up to aAphek to fight against Israel.
27 And the children of Israel were mustered and given provisions, and they went against them. Now the children of Israel encamped before them like two little flocks of goats, while the Syrians filled the acountryside.
28 Then a aman of God came and spoke to the king of Israel, and said,

16 a1 Kin.
16:9; 20:12;
[Prov. 20:1] 22 a2 Sam.
11:1; 1 Kin.
20:26 1Lit. at
the return
24 1positions
25 1Lit. that
fell from you
26 aJosh. 13:4;
2 Kin. 13:17
27 aJudg.
6:3–5; 1 Sam.
28 a1 Kin.
17:18 b1 Kin.
31 aGen.
37:34; 2 Sam.
34 a1 Kin.
35 a2 Kin. 2:3,
5, 7, 15
b1 Kin. 13:17,
36 a1 Kin.

“Thus says the LORD: ‘Because the Syrians have said, “The LORD is God of the hills, but He is not God of the valleys,” therefore bI will deliver all this great multitude into your hand, and you shall know that I am the LORD.’ ”
29 And they encamped opposite each other for seven days. So it was that on the seventh day the battle was joined; and the children of Israel killed one hundred thousand foot soldiers of the Syrians in one day.
30 But the rest fled to Aphek, into the city; then a wall fell on twentyseven thousand of the men who were left. And Ben-Hadad fled and went into the city, into an inner chamber.

Ahab’s Treaty with Ben-Hadad

31 Then his servants said to him, “Look now, we have heard that the kings of the house of Israel are merciful kings. Please, let us aput sackcloth around our waists and ropes around our heads, and go out to the king of Israel; perhaps he will spare your life.”
32 So they wore sackcloth around their waists and put ropes around their heads, and came to the king of Israel and said, “Your servant Ben- Hadad says, ‘Please let me live.’ ” And he said, “Is he still alive? He is my brother.”
33 Now the men were watching closely to see whether any sign of mercy would come from him; and they quickly grasped at this word and said, “Your brother Ben-Hadad.” So he said, “Go, bring him.” Then Ben-Hadad came out to him; and he had him come up into the chariot.
34 So Ben-Hadad said to him, a“The cities which my father took from your father I will restore; and you may set up marketplaces for yourself in Damascus, as my father did in Samaria.” Then Ahab said, “I will send you away with this treaty.” So he made a treaty with him and sent him away.

Ahab Condemned

35 Now a certain man of athe sons of the prophets said to his neighbor bby the word of the LORD, “Strike me, please.” And the man refused to strike him.
36 Then he said to him, “Because you have not obeyed the voice of the LORD, surely, as soon as you depart from me, a lion shall kill you.” And as soon as he left him, aa lion found him and killed him.
37 And he found another man, and said, “Strike me, please.” So the man struck him, inflicting a wound.
38 Then the prophet departed and waited for the king by the road, and disguised himself with a bandage over his eyes.

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39 Now aas the king passed by, he cried out to the king and said, “Your servant went out into the midst of the battle; and there, a man came over and brought a man to me, and said, ‘Guard this man; if by any means he is missing, byour life shall be for his life, or else you shall 1pay a talent of silver.’
40 “While your servant was busy here and there, he was gone.” Then the king of Israel said to him, “So shall your judgment be; you yourself have decided it.”
41 And he hastened to take the bandage away from his eyes; and the king of Israel recognized him as one of the prophets.
42 Then he said to him, “Thus says the LORD: a‘Because you have let slip out of your hand a man whom I appointed to utter destruction, therefore your life shall go for his life, and your people for his people.’ ”
43 So the king of Israel awent to his house sullen and displeased, and came to Samaria.

Naboth Is Murdered for His Vineyard


1 And it came to pass after these things that Naboth the Jezreelite had a vineyard which was in aJezreel, next to the palace of Ahab king of Samaria.
2 So Ahab spoke to Naboth, saying, “Give me your avineyard, that I may have it for a vegetable garden, because it is near, next to my house; and for it I will give you a vineyard better than it. Or, if it seems good to you, I will give you its worth in money.”
3 But Naboth said to Ahab, “The LORD forbid athat I should give the inheritance of my fathers to you!”
4 So Ahab went into his house sullen and displeased because of the word which Naboth the Jezreelite had spoken to him; for he had said, “I will not give you the inheritance of my fathers.” And he lay down on his bed, and turned away his face, and would eat no food.
5 But aJezebel his wife came to him, and said to him, “Why is your spirit so sullen that you eat no food?”
6 He said to her, “Because I spoke to Naboth the Jezreelite, and said to him, ‘Give me your vineyard for money; or else, if it pleases you, I will give you another vineyard for it.’ And he answered, ‘I will not give you my vineyard.’ ”
7 Then Jezebel his wife said to him, “You now exercise authority over Israel! Arise, eat food, and let your heart be cheerful; I will give you the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite.”
8 And she wrote letters in Ahab’s name, sealed them with his seal, and sent the letters to the elders and the

39 a2 Sam.
12:1 b2 Kin.
10:24 1Lit.
42 a1 Kin.
43 a1 Kin. 21:4

CHAPTER 21 References

1 aJudg. 6:33;
1 Kin. 18:45,
2 a1 Sam. 8:14
3 a[Lev. 25:23;
Num. 36:7;
Ezek. 46:18] 5 a1 Kin.
19:1, 2
9 1Lit. at the
10 a[Ex. 22:28;
Lev. 24:15,
16]; Acts 6:11
b[Lev. 24:14] 12 aIs. 58:4
13 a[Ex. 20:16;
23:1, 7] b2 Kin. 9:26;
2 Chr. 24:21;
Acts 7:58, 59;
Heb. 11:37
17 a[Ps. 9:12] b1 Kin. 19:1
18 a1 Kin.
13:32; 2 Chr.
19 a1 Kin.
22:38; 2 Kin.
20 a1 Kin.
18:17 b1 Kin.
21:25; 2 Kin.
17:17; [Rom.
7:14] 21 a1 Kin.
14:10; 2 Kin.
9:8 b2 Kin.
10:10 c1 Sam.
25:22 d1 Kin.

1 KINGS 21:21

nobles who were dwelling in the city with Naboth.
9 She wrote in the letters, saying,

Proclaim a fast, and seat Naboth 1with high honor among the people;
10 and seat two men, scoundrels, before him to bear witness against him, saying, “You have ablasphemed God and the king.” Then take him out, and bstone him, that he may die.

11 So the men of his city, the elders and nobles who were inhabitants of his city, did as Jezebel had sent to them, as it was written in the letters which she had sent to them.
12 aThey proclaimed a fast, and seated Naboth with high honor among the people.
13 And two men, scoundrels, came in and sat before him; and the scoundrels awitnessed against him, against Naboth, in the presence of the people, saying, “Naboth has blasphemed God and the king!” bThen they took him outside the city and stoned him with stones, so that he died.
14 Then they sent to Jezebel, saying, “Naboth has been stoned and is dead.”
15 And it came to pass, when Jezebel heard that Naboth had been stoned and was dead, that Jezebel said to Ahab, “Arise, take possession of the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite, which he refused to give you for money; for Naboth is not alive, but dead.”
16 So it was, when Ahab heard that Naboth was dead, that Ahab got up and went down to take possession of the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite.

The LORD Condemns Ahab

17 aThen the word of the LORD came to bElijah the Tishbite, saying,
18 “Arise, go down to meet Ahab king of Israel, awho lives in Samaria. There he is, in the vineyard of Naboth, where he has gone down to take possession of it.
19 “You shall speak to him, saying, ‘Thus says the LORD: “Have you murdered and also taken possession?” ’ And you shall speak to him, saying, ‘Thus says the LORD: a“In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth, dogs shall lick your blood, even yours.” ’ ”
20 So Ahab said to Elijah, a“Have you found me, O my enemy?” And he answered, “I have found you, because byou have sold yourself to do evil in the sight of the LORD:
21 ‘Behold, aI will bring calamity on you. I will take away your bposterity, and will cut off from Ahab cevery male in Israel, both dbond and free.

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1 KINGS 21:22

22 ‘I will make your house like the house of aJeroboam the son of Nebat, and like the house of bBaasha the son of Ahijah, because of the provocation with which you have provoked Me to anger, and made Israel sin.’
23 “And aconcerning Jezebel the LORD also spoke, saying, ‘The dogs shall eat Jezebel by the 1wall of Jezreel.’
24 “The dogs shall eat awhoever belongs to Ahab and dies in the city, and the birds of the air shall eat whoever dies in the field.”
25 But athere was no one like Ahab who sold himself to do wickedness in the sight of the LORD, bbecause Jezebel his wife 1stirred him up.
26 And he behaved very abominably in following idols, according to all athat the Amorites had done, whom the LORD had cast out before the children of Israel.
27 So it was, when Ahab heard those words, that he tore his clothes and aput sackcloth on his body, and fasted and lay in sackcloth, and went about mourning.
28 And the word of the LORD came to Elijah the Tishbite, saying,
29 “See how Ahab has humbled himself before Me? Because he ahas humbled himself before Me, I will not bring the calamity in his days. bIn the days of his son I will bring the calamity on his house.”

Micaiah Warns Ahab


1 Now three years passed without war between Syria and Israel.
2 Then it came to pass, in the third year, that aJehoshaphat the king of Judah went down to visit the king of Israel.
3 And the king of Israel said to his servants, “Do you know that aRamoth in Gilead is ours, but we hesitate to take it out of the hand of the king of Syria?”
4 So he said to Jehoshaphat, “Will you go with me to fight at Ramoth Gilead?” Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, a“I am as you are, my people as your people, my horses as your horses.”
5 Also Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, a“Please inquire for the word of the LORD today.”
6 Then the king of Israel agathered 1the prophets together, about four hundred men, and said to them, “Shall I go against Ramoth Gilead to fight, or shall I refrain?” So they said, “Go up, for the Lord will deliver it into the hand of the king.”
7 And aJehoshaphat said, “Is there not still a prophet of the LORD here, that we may inquire of 1Him?”
8 So the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “There is still one man, Micaiah the son of Imlah, by whom we may inquire of the LORD; but I

22 a1 Kin.
15:29 b1 Kin.
16:3, 11
23 a2 Kin. 9:10,
30–37 1So
with MT,
LXX; some
Heb. mss.,
Syr., Tg.,Vg.
plot of ground
instead of
wall (cf.
2 Kin. 9:36)
24 a1 Kin.
14:11; 16:4
25 a1 Kin.
21:20 b1 Kin.
16:31 1incited
26 aGen. 15:16;
2 Kin. 21:11
27 aGen. 37:34;
2 Sam. 3:31;
2 Kin. 6:30
29 a[2 Kin.
22:19] b2 Kin.
9:25; 10:11, 17

CHAPTER 22 References

2 a1 Kin.
15:24; 2 Chr.
3 aDeut. 4:43;
Josh. 21:38;
1 Kin. 4:13
4 a2 Kin. 3:7
5 a2 Kin. 3:11
6 a1 Kin. 18:19
1The false
7 a2 Kin. 3:11
1Or him
11 aZech.
1:18–21 bDeut.
14 aNum.
22:38; 24:13
17 aNum.
27:17; 1 Kin.
2 Chr. 18:16;
Matt. 9:36;
Mark 6:34
19 aIs. 6:1;
Ezek. 1:26–28;
Dan. 7:9 bJob
1:6; 2:1; Ps.
103:20; Dan.
7:10; Zech.
1:10; [Matt.
18:10; Heb.
1:7, 14] 22 aJudg. 9:23;
1 Sam. 16:14;
18:10; 19:9;
Job 12:16;
[Ezek. 14:9;
2 Thess. 2:11]

hate him, because he does not prophesy good concerning me, but evil.” And Jehoshaphat said, “Let not the king say such things!”
9 Then the king of Israel called an officer and said, “Bring Micaiah the son of Imlah quickly!”
10 The king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, having put on their robes, sat each on his throne, at a threshing floor at the entrance of the gate of Samaria; and all the prophets prophesied before them.
11 Now Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah had made ahorns of iron for himself; and he said, “Thus says the LORD: ‘With these you shall bgore the Syrians until they are destroyed.’ ”
12 And all the prophets prophesied so, saying, “Go up to Ramoth Gilead and prosper, for the LORD will deliver it into the king’s hand.”
13 Then the messenger who had gone to call Micaiah spoke to him, saying, “Now listen, the words of the prophets with one accord encourage the king. Please, let your word be like the word of one of them, and speak encouragement.”
14 And Micaiah said, “As the LORD lives, awhatever the LORD says to me, that I will speak.”
15 Then he came to the king; and the king said to him, “Micaiah, shall we go to war against Ramoth Gilead, or shall we refrain?” And he answered him, “Go and prosper, for the LORD will deliver it into the hand of the king!”
16 So the king said to him, “How many times shall I make you swear that you tell me nothing but the truth in the name of the LORD?”
17 Then he said, “I saw all Israel ascattered on the mountains, as sheep that have no shepherd. And the LORD said, ‘These have no master. Let each return to his house in peace.’ ”
18 And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “Did I not tell you he would not prophesy good concerning me, but evil?”
19 Then Micaiah said, “Therefore hear the word of the LORD: aI saw the LORD sitting on His throne, band all the host of heaven standing by, on His right hand and on His left.
20 “And the LORD said, ‘Who will persuade Ahab to go up, that he may fall at Ramoth Gilead?’ So one spoke in this manner, and another spoke in that manner.
21 “Then a spirit came forward and stood before the LORD, and said, ‘I will persuade him.’
22 “The LORD said to him, ‘In what way?’ So he said, ‘I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets.’ And the LORD said, a‘You shall persuade him, and also prevail. Go out and do so.’

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23 a“Therefore look! The LORD has put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these prophets of yours, and the LORD has declared disaster against you.”
24 Now Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah went near and astruck Micaiah on the cheek, and said, b“Which way did the spirit from the LORD go from me to speak to you?”
25 And Micaiah said, “Indeed, you shall see on that day when you go into an ainner chamber to hide!”
26 So the king of Israel said, “Take Micaiah, and return him to Amon the governor of the city and to Joash the king’s son;
27 “and say, ‘Thus says the king: “Put this fellow in aprison, and feed him with bread of affliction and water of affliction, until I come in peace.” ’ ”
28 But Micaiah said, “If you ever return in peace, athe LORD has not spoken by me.” And he said, “Take heed, all you people!”

Ahab Dies in Battle

29 So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah went up to Ramoth Gilead.
30 And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “I will disguise myself and go into battle; but you put on your robes.” So the king of Israel adisguised himself and went into battle.
31 Now the aking of Syria had commanded the thirty-two bcaptains of his chariots, saying, “Fight with no one small or great, but only with the king of Israel.”
32 So it was, when the captains of the chariots saw Jehoshaphat, that they said, “Surely it is the king of Israel!” Therefore they turned aside to fight against him, and Jehoshaphat acried out.
33 And it happened, when the captains of the chariots saw that it was not the king of Israel, that they turned back from pursuing him.
34 Now a certain man drew a bow at random, and struck the king of Israel between the joints of his armor. So he said to the driver of his chariot, “Turn around and take me out of the battle, for I am wounded.”
35 The battle increased that day; and the king was propped up in his chariot, facing the Syrians, and died at evening. The blood ran out from the wound onto the floor of the chariot.
36 Then, as the sun was going down, a shout went throughout the army, saying, “Every man to his city, and every man to his own country!”
37 So the king died, and was brought to Samaria. And they buried the king in Samaria.
38 Then someone washed the char-

23 a[Ezek.
14:9] 24 aJer. 20:2
b2 Chr. 18:23
25 a1 Kin.
27 a2 Chr.
28 aNum.
16:29; Deut.
30 a2 Chr.
31 a1 Kin. 20:1
b1 Kin. 20:24;
2 Chr. 18:30
32 a2 Chr.
38 a1 Kin.
21:19 1Tg.,
Syr. they
washed his
39 aPs. 45:8;
Amos 3:15
40 a2 Kin. 1:2,
18 1Died and
joined his
41 a2 Chr.
43 a2 Chr. 17:3;
20:32, 33
b1 Kin. 14:23;
15:14; 2 Kin.
44 a2 Chr. 19:2
b2 Chr. 18:1
45 a2 Chr.
46 aGen. 19:5;
Deut. 23:17;
1 Kin. 14:24;
15:12; 2 Kin.
23:7; Jude 7
1Heb. qadesh,
one practicing
and prostitution
in religious
47 a2 Sam.
8:14; 2 Kin.
3:9; 8:20
48 a2 Chr.
b1 Kin. 10:22
c1 Kin. 9:28
d2 Chr. 20:37
e1 Kin. 9:26
1Or ships of
50 a2 Chr. 21:1
1Died and
joined his
51 a1 Kin.
52 a1 Kin.
15:26; 21:25
53 aJudg. 2:11
b1 Kin.
16:30–32 1In
the same
way that

1 KINGS 22:53

iot at a pool in Samaria, and the dogs licked up his blood while 1the harlots bathed, according ato the word of the LORD which He had spoken.
39 Now the rest of the acts of Ahab, and all that he did, athe ivory house which he built and all the cities that he built, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?
40 So Ahab 1rested with his fathers. Then aAhaziah his son reigned in his place.

Jehoshaphat Reigns in Judah

41 aJehoshaphat the son of Asa had become king over Judah in the fourth year of Ahab king of Israel.
42 Jehoshaphat was thirty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned twenty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Azubah the daughter of Shilhi.
43 And ahe walked in all the ways of his father Asa. He did not turn aside from them, doing what was right in the eyes of the LORD. Nevertheless bthe high places were not taken away, for the people offered sacrifices and burned incense on the high places.
44 Also aJehoshaphat made bpeace with the king of Israel.
45 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, the might that he showed, and how he made war, are they not written ain the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?
46 aAnd the rest of the 1perverted persons, who remained in the days of his father Asa, he banished from the land.
47 aThere was then no king in Edom, only a deputy of the king.
48 aJehoshaphat bmade 1merchant ships to go to cOphir for gold; dbut they never sailed, for the ships were wrecked at eEzion Geber.
49 Then Ahaziah the son of Ahab said to Jehoshaphat, “Let my servants go with your servants in the ships.” But Jehoshaphat would not.
50 And aJehoshaphat 1rested with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the City of David his father. Then Jehoram his son reigned in his place.

Ahaziah Reigns in Israel

51 aAhaziah the son of Ahab became king over Israel in Samaria in the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned two years over Israel.
52 He did evil in the sight of the LORD, and awalked in the way of his father and in the way of his mother and in the way of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who had made Israel sin;
53 for ahe served Baal and worshiped him, and provoked the LORD God of Israel to anger, baccording1 to all that his father had done.

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A Song of Praise for the LORD’s Faithfulness to His People

aA Psalm of Thanksgiving.

1 MAKE aa joyful shout to the LORD, 1all you lands!
2 Serve the LORD with gladness; Come before His presence with singing.
3 Know that the LORD, He is God; aIt is He who has made us, and 1not we ourselves; bWe are His people and the sheep of His pasture.

PSALM 100 References

4 aEnter into His gates with thanksgiving, And into His courts with praise. Be thankful to Him, and bless His name.
5 For the LORD is good; aHis mercy is everlasting, And His truth endures to all generations.




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