The Covenant at Mount Sinai
(Category 4 of 16)
Watch our Read Scripture video on the book of Exodus, which breaks down the literary design of the book and its flow of thought. This is the second of two Read Scripture videos dedicated to the book of Exodus, which aims to help you see its unique contribution to the story of Jesus, but also how it works within the Bible’s overall framework.
This video explores the main ideas and flow of thought of the book of Exodus Ch. 19-40.
Explore Exodus 19-40
Exodus 19-40 (RS)
CHAPTER 19 References
1 aNum. 33:15
2 aEx. 17:1
bEx. 3:1, 12;
3 aActs 7:38
4 aDeut. 29:2
bIs. 63:9 1sustained
5 aEx. 15:26;
5:2 cPs. 135:4
6 a[1 Pet. 2:5,
9] bDeut. 7:6;
7 aEx. 4:29, 30
8 aDeut. 5:27;
9 aEx. 19:16;
bDeut. 4:12, 36
Israel at Mount Sinai
1 In the third month after the children of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on the same day, athey came to the Wilderness of Sinai.
2 For they had departed from aRephidim, had come to the Wilderness of Sinai, and camped in the wilderness. So Israel camped there before bthe mountain.
3 And aMoses went up to God, and the LORD bcalled to him from the mountain, saying, “Thus you shall say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:
4 a‘You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how bI 1bore you on eagles’ wings and brought you to Myself.
5 ‘Now atherefore, if you will indeed obey My voice and bkeep My covenant, then cyou shall be a special treasure to Me above all people; for all the earth is dMine.
6 ‘And you shall be to Me a akingdom of priests and a bholy nation.’ These are the words which you shall speak to the children of Israel.”
7 So Moses came and called for the aelders of the people, and 1laid before them all these words which the LORD commanded him.
8 Then aall the people answered together and said, “All that the LORD has spoken we will do.” So Moses brought back the words of the people to the LORD.
9 And the LORD said to Moses, “Behold, I come to you ain the thick cloud, bthat the people may hear when I speak with you, and believe you forever.” So Moses told the words of the people to the LORD.
10 Then the LORD said to Moses,
“Go to the people and aconsecrate them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their clothes.
11 “And let them be ready for the third day. For on the third day the LORD will come down upon Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people.
12 “You shall set bounds for the people all around, saying, ‘Take heed to yourselves that you do not go up to the mountain or touch its base. aWhoever touches the mountain shall surely be put to death.
13 ‘Not a hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned or shot with an arrow; whether man or beast, he shall not live.’ When the trumpet sounds long, they shall come near the mountain.”
14 So Moses went down from the mountain to the people and sanctified the people, and they washed their clothes.
15 And he said to the people, “Be ready for the third day; ado not come near your wives.”
16 Then it came to pass on the third day, in the morning, that there were athunderings and lightnings, and a thick cloud on the mountain; and the sound of the trumpet was very loud, so that all the people who were in the camp btrembled.
17 And aMoses brought the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain.
18 Now aMount Sinai was completely in smoke, because the LORD descended upon bit in fire. cIts smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and 1the dwhole mountain quaked greatly.
19 And when the blast of the trumpet sounded long and became louder and louder, aMoses spoke, and bGod answered him by voice.
20 Then the LORD came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain. And the LORD called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up.
21 And the LORD said to Moses, “Go down and warn the people, lest they break through ato gaze at the LORD, and many of them perish.
22 “Also let the apriests who come near the LORD bconsecrate themselves, lest the LORD cbreak out against them.”
23 But Moses said to the LORD, “The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai; for You warned us, saying, a‘Set bounds around the mountain and consecrate it.’ ”
24 Then the LORD said to him, “Away! Get down and then come up, you and Aaron with you. But do not let the priests and the people break through to come up to the LORD, lest He break out against them.”
10 aLev. 11:44,
12 aHeb. 12:20
15 a[1 Cor. 7:5] 16 aHeb.
17 aDeut. 4:10
18 aDeut. 4:11
bEx. 3:2; 24:17
19:28 dPs. 68:8
1LXX all the
19 aHeb. 12:21
21 a1 Sam.
22 aEx. 19:24;
c2 Sam. 6:7, 8
23 aEx. 19:12
1 aDeut. 5:22
2 aHos. 13:4
3 aJer. 25:6;
5 aIs. 44:15, 19
6 aDeut. 7:9
7 aLev. 19:12
8 aLev. 26:2
9 aLuke 13:14
10 aGen. 2:2, 3
11 aEx. 31:17
12 aLev. 19:3
33; 6:2; 11:8, 9
13 aRom. 13:9
14 aMatt. 5:27
15 aLev. 19:11,
16 aDeut. 5:20
17 a[Eph. 5:3,
25 So Moses went down to the people and spoke to them.
The Ten Commandments
1 And God spoke aall these words, saying:
2 a“I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, bout of the house of 1bondage.
3 a“You shall have no other gods before Me.
4 a“You shall not make for yourself a carved image—any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;
5 ayou shall not bow down to them nor 1serve them. bFor I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, cvisiting2 the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me,
6 but ashowing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments.
7 a“You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD bwill not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain.
8 a“Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
9 aSix days you shall labor and do all your work,
10 but the aseventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God. In it you shall do no work: you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your cattle, bnor your stranger who is within your gates.
11 For ain six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.
12 a“Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be blong upon the land which the LORD your God is giving you.
13 a“You shall not murder.
14 a“You shall not commit badultery.
15 a“You shall not steal.
16 a“You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
17 a“You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; byou shall
not covet your neighbor’s wife, nor his male servant, nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbor’s.”
The People Afraid of God’s Presence
18 Now aall the people bwitnessed the thunderings, the lightning flashes, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain csmoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled and stood afar off.
19 Then they said to Moses, a“You speak with us, and we will hear; but blet not God speak with us, lest we die.”
20 And Moses said to the people, a“Do not fear; bfor God has come to test you, and cthat His fear may be before you, so that you may not sin.”
21 So the people stood afar off, but Moses drew near athe thick darkness where God was.
The Law of the Altar
22 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Thus you shall say to the children of Israel: ‘You have seen that I have talked with you afrom heaven.
23 ‘You shall not make anything to be awith Me—gods of silver or gods of gold you shall not make for yourselves.
24 ‘An altar of aearth you shall make for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, byour sheep and your oxen. In every cplace where I 1record My name I will come to you, and I will dbless you.
25 ‘And aif you make Me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of hewn stone; for if you buse your tool on it, you have profaned it.
26 ‘Nor shall you go up by steps to My altar, that your anakedness may not be exposed on it.’
The Law Concerning Servants
1 “Now these are the 1judgments which you shall aset before them:
2 a“If you buy a Hebrew servant, he shall serve six years; and in the seventh he shall go out free and pay nothing.
3 “If he comes in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he comes in married, then his wife shall go out with him.
4 “If his master has given him a wife, and she has borne him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself.
5 a“But if the servant plainly says, ‘I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,’
6 “then his master shall bring him to the ajudges. He shall also bring
18 aHeb. 12:18,
19 bRev. 1:10,
12 cEx. 19:16,
19 aHeb. 12:19
20 a[Is. 41:10,
13:3] cIs. 8:13
21 aEx. 19:16
22 aDeut. 4:36;
23 aEx. 32:1,
24 aEx. 20:25;
24:5 c2 Chr.
6:6 dGen. 12:2
name to be
25 aDeut. 27:5
bJosh. 8:30, 31
26 aEx. 28:42,
1 aDeut. 4:14;
2 aJer. 34:14
6 aEx. 12:12;
7 aNeh. 5:5
8 1Lit. is evil
in the eyes of
10 a[1 Cor. 7:3,
5] 12 a[Matt.
26:52] 13 aDeut. 19:4,
5 b1 Sam.
24:4, 10, 18
16 aDeut. 24:7
17 aMark 7:10
19 a2 Sam.
22 aEx. 18:21,
24 aLev. 24:20
him to the door, or to the doorpost, and his master shall pierce his ear with an awl; and he shall serve him forever.
7 “And if a man asells his daughter to be a female slave, she shall not go out as the male slaves do.
8 “If she 1does not please her master, who has betrothed her to himself, then he shall let her be redeemed. He shall have no right to sell her to a foreign people, since he has dealt deceitfully with her.
9 “And if he has betrothed her to his son, he shall deal with her according to the custom of daughters.
10 “If he takes another wife, he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, aand her marriage rights.
11 “And if he does not do these three for her, then she shall go out free, without paying money.
The Law Concerning Violence
12 a“He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death.
13 “However, aif he did not lie in wait, but God bdelivered him into his hand, then cI will appoint for you a place where he may flee.
14 “But if a man acts with apremeditation against his neighbor, to kill him by treachery, byou shall take him from My altar, that he may die.
15 “And he who strikes his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.
16 a“He who kidnaps a man and bsells him, or if he is cfound in his hand, shall surely be put to death.
17 “And ahe who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.
18 “If men contend with each other, and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but is confined to his bed,
19 “if he rises again and walks about outside awith his staff, then he who struck him shall be 1acquitted. He shall only pay for the loss of his time, and shall provide for him to be thoroughly healed.
20 “And if a man beats his male or female servant with a rod, so that he dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished.
21 “Notwithstanding, if he remains alive a day or two, he shall not be punished; for he is his aproperty.
22 “If men 1fight, and hurt a woman with child, so that 2she gives birth prematurely, yet no harm follows, he shall surely be punished accordingly as the woman’s husband imposes on him; and he shall apay as the judges determine.
23 “But if any harm follows, then you shall give life for life,
24 a“eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,
25 “burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.
26 “If a man strikes the eye of his male or female servant, and destroys it, he shall let him go free for the sake of his eye.
27 “And if he knocks out the tooth of his male or female servant, he shall let him go free for the sake of his tooth.
Animal Control Laws
28 “If an ox gores a man or a woman to death, then athe ox shall surely be stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be 1acquitted.
29 “But if the ox 1tended to thrust with its horn in times past, and it has been made known to his owner, and he has not kept it confined, so that it has killed a man or a woman, the ox shall be stoned and its owner also shall be put to death.
30 “If there is imposed on him a sum of money, then he shall pay ato redeem his life,whatever is imposed on him.
31 “Whether it has gored a son or gored a daughter, according to this judgment it shall be done to him.
32 “If the ox gores a male or female servant, he shall give to their master athirty shekels of silver, and the box shall be stoned.
33 “And if a man opens a pit, or if a man digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or a donkey falls in it,
34 “the owner of the pit shall make it good; he shall give money to their owner, but the dead animal shall be his.
35 “If one man’s ox hurts another’s, so that it dies, then they shall sell the live ox and divide the money from it; and the dead ox they shall also divide.
36 “Or if it was known that the ox tended to thrust in time past, and its owner has not kept it confined, he shall surely pay ox for ox, and the dead animal shall be his own.
28 aGen. 9:5
30 aEx. 21:22;
27:3, 9 bEx.
The LORD the Shepherd of His People
A Psalm of David.
1 THE LORD is amy shepherd; bI shall not 1want.
2 aHe makes me to lie down in 1green pastures; bHe leads me beside the 2still waters.
3 He restores my soul; aHe leads me in the paths of righteousness For His name’s sake.
PSALM 23 References
1 a[Is. 40:11];
b[Phil. 4:19] 1lack
2 aEzek. 34:14
b[Rev. 7:17] 1Lit. pastures
waters of rest
3 aPs. 5:8; 31:3
4 aJob 3:5;
3:6; 27:1] c[Is.
43:2] 5 aPs. 104:15
6 1So with
return 2Or To
the end of my
days, lit. For
length of days
5 You aprepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; You banoint my head with oil; My cup runs over.
6 Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me All the days of my life; And I will 1dwell in the house of the LORD 2Forever.
DREAM IT => PLAN IT => DO IT
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