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The Covenant at Mount Sinai

(Category 4 of 16)

 
The Israelites come to Mt. Sinai, where God invites them into a covenant relationship. He wants to make them his representatives to all the nations and come to personally live in their midst. But Israel rebels by making an idol of the golden calf, which is just a really bad idea.

This video explores the main ideas and flow of thought of Explore Exodus 19-40.
“The Torah” refers to the first five books of the Old Testament which tell the foundation story of the Israelites. It recounts their covenant with God and their role in human history.

Explore Exodus 19-40

Exodus 19-40 (TOR)

 

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Responsibility for Property

22

1 “If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and slaughters it or sells it, he shall arestore five oxen for an ox and four sheep for a sheep.
2 “If the thief is found abreaking in, and he is struck so that he dies, there shall be bno guilt for his bloodshed.
3 “If the sun has risen on him, there shall be guilt for his bloodshed. He should make full restitution; if he has nothing, then he shall be asold1 for his theft.
4 “If the theft is certainly afound alive in his hand, whether it is an ox or donkey or sheep, he shall brestore double.
5 “If a man causes a field or vineyard to be grazed, and lets loose his animal, and it feeds in another man’s field, he shall make restitution from

CHAPTER 22 References

1 a2 Sam. 12:6;
Prov. 6:31;
Luke 19:8
2 aJob 24:16;
Matt. 6:19;
24:43; 1 Pet.
4:15 bNum.
35:27
3 aEx. 21:2;
Matt. 18:25
1Sold as a
slave
4 aEx. 21:16
bProv. 6:31
7 aLev. 6:1–7
bEx. 22:4
8 aEx. 21:6, 22;
22:28; Deut.
17:8, 9; 19:17
9 aDeut. 25:1;
2 Chr. 19:10
11 aHeb. 6:16
12 aGen. 31:39
13 aGen. 31:39
16 aDeut.
22:28, 29
17 aGen. 34:12;
1 Sam. 18:25
18 aLev. 19:31;
20:6, 27; Deut.
18:10, 11;
1 Sam.
28:3–10; Jer.
27:9, 10
19 aLev. 18:23;
20:15, 16;
Deut. 27:21
20 aEx. 32:8;
34:15; Lev.
17:7; Num.
25:2; Deut.
17:2, 3, 5;
1 Kin. 18:40;
2 Kin. 10:25
21 aEx. 23:9;
Deut. 10:19;
Zech. 7:10
1sojourner
22 aDeut.
24:17, 18;
Prov. 23:10,
11; Jer. 7:6, 7;
[James 1:27]

EXODUS 22:23

the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard.
6 “If fire breaks out and catches in thorns, so that stacked grain, standing grain, or the field is consumed, he who kindled the fire shall surely make restitution.
7 “If a man adelivers to his neighbor money or articles to keep, and it is stolen out of the man’s house, bif the thief is found, he shall pay double.
8 “If the thief is not found, then the master of the house shall be brought to the ajudges to see whether he has put his hand into his neighbor’s goods.
9 “For any kind of trespass, whether it concerns an ox, a donkey, a sheep, or clothing, or for any kind of lost thing which another claims to be his, the acause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whomever the judges condemn shall pay double to his neighbor.
10 “If a man delivers to his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep, and it dies, is hurt, or driven away, no one seeing it,
11 “then an aoath of the LORD shall be between them both, that he has not put his hand into his neighbor’s goods; and the owner of it shall accept that, and he shall not make it good.
12 “But aif, in fact, it is stolen from him, he shall make restitution to the owner of it.
13 “If it is atorn to pieces by a beast, then he shall bring it as evidence, and he shall not make good what was torn.
14 “And if a man borrows anything from his neighbor, and it becomes injured or dies, the owner of it not being with it, he shall surely make it good.
15 “If its owner was with it, he shall not make it good; if it was hired, it came for its hire.

Moral and Ceremonial Principles

16 a“If a man entices a virgin who is not betrothed, and lies with her, he shall surely pay the bride-price for her to be his wife.
17 “If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the abride-price of virgins.
18 a“You shall not permit a sorceress to live.
19 a“Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death.
20 a“He who sacrifices to any god, except to the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed.
21 a“You shall neither mistreat a 1stranger nor oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.
22 a“You shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child.
23 “If you afflict them in any way,

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EXODUS 22:24

and they acry at all to Me, I will surely bhear their cry;
24 “and My awrath will become hot, and I will kill you with the sword; byour wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.
25 a“If you lend money to any of My people who are poor among you, you shall not be like a moneylender to him; you shall not charge him binterest.
26 a“If you ever take your neighbor’s garment as a pledge, you shall return it to him before the sun goes down.
27 “For that is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin. What will he sleep in? And it will be that when he cries to Me, I will hear, for I am agracious.
28 a“You shall not revile God, nor curse a bruler of your people.
29 “You shall not delay to offer athe first of your ripe produce and your juices. bThe firstborn of your sons you shall give to Me.
30 a“Likewise you shall do with your oxen and your sheep. It shall be with its mother bseven days; on the eighth day you shall give it to Me.
31 “And you shall be aholy men to Me: byou shall not eat meat torn by beasts in the field; you shall throw it to the dogs.

Justice for All

23

1 “You ashall not circulate a false report. Do not put your hand with the wicked to be an bunrighteous witness.
2 a“You shall not follow a crowd to do evil; bnor shall you testify in a dispute so as to turn aside after many to pervert justice.
3 “You shall not show partiality to a apoor man in his dispute.
4 a“If you meet your enemy’s ox or his donkey going astray, you shall surely bring it back to him again.
5 a“If you see the donkey of one who hates you lying under its burden, and you would refrain from helping it, you shall surely help him with it.
6 a“You shall not pervert the judgment of your poor in his dispute.
7 a“Keep yourself far from a false matter; bdo not kill the innocent and righteous. For cI will not justify the wicked.
8 “And ayou shall take no bribe, for a bribe blinds the discerning and perverts the words of the righteous.
9 “Also ayou shall not oppress a 1stranger, for you know the heart of a stranger, because you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

The Law of Sabbaths

10 a“Six years you shall sow your land and gather in its produce,
11 “but the seventh year you shall

23 a[Luke
18:7] bPs. 18:6
24 aPs. 69:24
bPs. 109:9
25 aLev.
25:35–37 bPs.
15:5
26 aDeut. 24:6,
10–13
27 aEx. 34:6, 7
28 aEccl. 10:20
bActs 23:5
29 aEx. 23:16,
19 bEx. 13:2,
12, 15
30 aDeut.
15:19 bLev.
22:27
31 aLev. 11:44;
19:2 bEzek.
4:14

CHAPTER 23 References

1 aPs. 101:5
bDeut.
19:16–21
2 aGen. 7:1
bLev. 19:15
3 aDeut. 1:17;
16:19
4 a[Rom.
12:20] 5 aDeut. 22:4
6 aEccl. 5:8
7 aEph. 4:25
bMatt. 27:4
cRom. 1:18
8 aProv. 15:27;
17:8, 23
9 aEx. 22:21
1sojourner
10 aLev. 25:1–7
11 1olive yards
12 aLuke 13:14
13 a1 Tim. 4:16
bJosh. 23:7
14 aEx. 23:17;
34:22–24
15 aEx.
12:14–20
bEx. 22:29;
34:20
16 aEx. 34:22
bDeut. 16:13
17 aDeut.
16:16 1Heb.
YHWH, usually
translated
LORD
18 aEx. 34:25
bDeut. 16:4
1feast
19 aDeut. 26:2,
10 bDeut.
14:21
20 aEx. 3:2;
13:15; 14:19
21 aPs. 78:40,
56 bDeut.
18:19 cIs. 9:6
22 aDeut. 30:7
23 aEx. 23:20
bJosh. 24:8, 11
1annihilate
them
24 aEx. 20:5;
23:13, 33
bDeut. 12:30,
31 cNum.
33:52
25 aDeut. 6:13
bDeut. 28:5

let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of your people may eat; and what they leave, the beasts of the field may eat. In like manner you shall do with your vineyard and your 1olive grove.
12 a“Six days you shall do your work, and on the seventh day you shall rest, that your ox and your donkey may rest, and the son of your female servant and the stranger may be refreshed.
13 “And in all that I have said to you, abe circumspect and bmake no mention of the name of other gods, nor let it be heard from your mouth.

Three Annual Feasts

14 a“Three times you shall keep a feast to Me in the year:
15 a“You shall keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread (you shall eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month of Abib, for in it you came out of Egypt; bnone shall appear before Me empty);
16 a“and the Feast of Harvest, the firstfruits of your labors which you have sown in the field; and bthe Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you have gathered in the fruit of your labors from the field.
17 a“Three times in the year all your males shall appear before the Lord 1GOD.
18 a“You shall not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bbread; nor shall the fat of My 1sacrifice remain until morning.
19 a“The first of the firstfruits of your land you shall bring into the house of the LORD your God. bYou shall not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.

The Angel and the Promises

20 a“Behold, I send an Angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you into the place which I have prepared.
21 “Beware of Him and obey His voice; ado not provoke Him, for He will bnot pardon your transgressions; for cMy name is in Him.
22 “But if you indeed obey His voice and do all that I speak, then aI will be an enemy to your enemies and an adversary to your adversaries.
23 a“For My Angel will go before you and bbring you in to the Amorites and the Hittites and the Perizzites and the Canaanites and the Hivites and the Jebusites; and I will 1cut them off.
24 “You shall not abow down to their gods, nor serve them, bnor do according to their works; cbut you shall utterly overthrow them and completely break down their sacred pillars.
25 “So you shall aserve the LORD your God, and bHe will bless your

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bread and your water. And cI will take sickness away from the midst of you.
26 a“No one shall suffer miscarriage or be barren in your land; I will bfulfill the number of your days.
27 “I will send aMy fear before you, I will bcause confusion among all the people to whom you come, and will make all your enemies turn their backs to you.
28 “And aI will send hornets before you, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite from before you.
29 a“I will not drive them out from before you in one year, lest the land become desolate and the beasts of the field become too numerous for you.
30 “Little by little I will drive them out from before you, until you have increased, and you inherit the land.
31 “And aI will set your 1bounds from the Red Sea to the sea, Philistia, and from the desert to the 2River. For I will bdeliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you shall drive them out before you.
32 a“You shall make no 1covenant with them, nor with their gods.
33 “They shall not dwell in your land, lest they make you sin against Me. For if you serve their gods, ait will surely be a snare to you.”

Israel Affirms the Covenant

24

1 Now He said to Moses, “Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron, aNadab and Abihu, band seventy of the elders of Israel, and worship from afar.
2 “And Moses alone shall come near the LORD, but they shall not come near; nor shall the people go up with him.”
3 So Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD and all the 1judgments. And all the people answered with one voice and said, a“All the words which the LORD has said we will do.”
4 And Moses awrote all the words of the LORD. And he rose early in the morning, and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and twelve bpillars according to the twelve tribes of Israel.
5 Then he sent young men of the children of Israel, who offered aburnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the LORD.
6 And Moses atook half the blood and put it in basins, and half the blood he sprinkled on the altar.
7 Then he atook the Book of the Covenant and read in the hearing of the people. And they said, “All that the LORD has said we will do, and be obedient.”
8 And Moses took the blood, sprinkled it on the people, and said, “This is athe blood of the covenant which

25 cEx. 15:26
26 aDeut. 7:14;
28:4 b1 Chr.
23:1
27 aEx. 15:16
bDeut. 7:23
28 aJosh. 24:12
29 aDeut. 7:22
31 aGen. 15:18
bJosh. 21:44
1boundaries
2Heb. Nahar,
the Euphrates
32 aEx. 34:12,
15 1treaty
33 aPs. 106:36

CHAPTER 24 References

1 aLev. 10:1, 2
bNum. 11:16
3 aEx. 19:8;
24:7
1ordinances
4 aDeut. 31:9
bGen. 28:18
5 aEx. 18:12;
20:24
6 aHeb. 9:18
7 aHeb. 9:19
8 a[Luke
22:20] 10 a[John 1:18;
6:46] bEzek.
1:26 cMatt.
17:2 1Lit. substance
of
heaven
11 aEx. 19:21
bGen. 32:30
c1 Cor. 10:18
1stretch out
His
12 aEx. 24:2,
15 bEx. 31:18;
32:15
13 aEx. 32:17
14 aEx. 17:10,
12
15 aEx. 19:9
16 aEx. 16:10;
33:18
17 aDeut. 4:26,
36; 9:3
18 aEx. 34:28

EXODUS 25:9

On the Mountain with God

9 Then Moses went up, also Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel,
10 and they asaw the God of Israel. And there was under His feet as it were a paved work of bsapphire stone, and it was like the cvery1 heavens in its clarity.
11 But on the nobles of the children of Israel He adid not 1lay His hand. So bthey saw God, and they cate and drank.
12 Then the LORD said to Moses, a“Come up to Me on the mountain and be there; and I will give you btablets of stone, and the law and commandments which I have written, that you may teach them.”
13 So Moses arose with ahis assistant Joshua, and Moses went up to the mountain of God.
14 And he said to the elders, “Wait here for us until we come back to you. Indeed, Aaron and aHur are with you. If any man has a difficulty, let him go to them.”
15 Then Moses went up into the mountain, and aa cloud covered the mountain.
16 Now athe glory of the LORD rested on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days. And on the seventh day He called to Moses out of the midst of the cloud.
17 The sight of the glory of the LORD was like aa consuming fire on the top of the mountain in the eyes of the children of Israel.
18 So Moses went into the midst of the cloud and went up into the mountain. And aMoses was on the mountain forty days and forty nights.

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PSALM 24

The King of Glory and His Kingdom

A Psalm of David.

1 THE aearth is the LORD’s, and all its fullness, The world and those who dwell therein.
2 For He has afounded it upon the seas, And established it upon the 1waters.

3 aWho may ascend into the hill of the LORD? Or who may stand in His holy place?
4 He who has aclean hands and ba pure heart, Who has not lifted up his soul to an idol, Nor csworn deceitfully.

PSALM 24 References

PSALM 24
1 a1 Cor.
10:26, 28
2 aPs. 89:11
1Lit. rivers
3 aPs. 15:1–5
4 a[Job 17:9];
Ps. 26:6 bPs.
51:10; 73:1;
[Matt. 5:8] cPs. 15:4
6 aPs. 27:4, 8
7 aPs. 118:20;
Is. 26:2 bPs.
29:2, 9; 97:6;
Hag. 2:7; Acts
7:2; [1 Cor.
2:8] 8 aRev.
19:13–16

5 He shall receive blessing from the LORD, And righteousness from the God of his salvation.
6 This is Jacob, the generation of those who aseek Him, Who seek Your face. Selah

7 aLift up your heads, O you gates! And be lifted up, you everlasting doors! bAnd the King of glory shall come in.
8 Who is this King of glory? The LORD strong and mighty, The LORD mighty in abattle.
9 Lift up your heads, O you gates! Lift up, you everlasting doors! And the King of glory shall come in.
10 Who is this King of glory? The LORD of hosts, He is the King of glory. Selah

 
 

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