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The Covenant at Mt. Sinai

(Category 4 of 16)

God is on a mission to remove evil from His good world, along with all of its corrosive effects. However, He wants to do it in a way that doesn’t involve removing humans. In this video we trace the theme of God’s “covering” over human evil through animal sacrifices that ultimately point to Jesus and his death and resurrection.

This video explores the main ideas about Sacrifice, Atonement and Purification

Explore Sacrifice & Atonement

Sacrifice & Atonement


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The Trespass Offering


1 ‘If a person sins in ahearing the utterance of an oath, and is a witness, whether he has seen or known of the matter—if he does not tell it, he bbears 1guilt.
2 ‘Or aif a person touches any unclean thing, whether it is the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean livestock, or the carcass of unclean creeping things, and he is unaware of it, he also shall be unclean and bguilty.
3 ‘Or if he touches ahuman uncleanness—whatever uncleanness with which a man may be defiled, and he is unaware of it—when he realizes it, then he shall be guilty.
4 ‘Or if a person 1swears, speaking thoughtlessly with his lips ato do evil or bto do good, whatever it is that a man may pronounce by an oath, and he is unaware of it—when he realizes it, then he shall be guilty in any of these matters.
5 ‘And it shall be, when he is guilty in any of these matters, that he shall aconfess that he has sinned in that thing;
6 ‘and he shall bring his trespass offering to the LORD for his sin which he has committed, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid of the goats as a sin offering. So the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his sin.
7 a‘If he is not able to bring a lamb, then he shall bring to the LORD, for his trespass which he has committed, two bturtledoves or two young pigeons: one as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering.
8 ‘And he shall bring them to the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin offering first, and awring off its head from its neck, but shall not divide it 1completely.
9 ‘Then he shall sprinkle some of the blood of the sin offering on the side of the altar, and the arest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar. It is a sin offering.
10 ‘And he shall offer the second as a burnt offering according to the

CHAPTER 5 References

1 aProv. 29:24
bNum. 9:13
1his iniquity
2 aNum.
19:11–16 bLev.
3 aLev. 5:12,
13, 15
4 aActs 23:12
b[James 5:12] 1vows
5 aProv. 28:13
7 aLev. 12:6, 8;
14:21 bLev.
8 aLev.
1:15–17 1Lit.
9 aLev. 4:7, 18,
30, 34
10 aLev.
1:14–17 bLev.
4:20, 26; 5:13,
11 aLev.
bNum. 5:15
12 aLev. 2:2
bLev. 4:35
13 aLev. 4:26
bLev. 2:3; 6:17,
26 1concerning
his sin
15 aLev. 4:2;
22:14 bEzra
10:19 cEx.
16 aNum. 5:7
bLev. 4:26
17 aLev. 4:2,
13, 22, 27
bLev. 5:1, 2
18 aLev. 5:15
19 aEzra 10:2

CHAPTER 6 References

2 aNum. 5:6
bLev. 19:11
cEx. 22:7, 10
dProv. 24:28
1deceiving his
associate 2an
3 aDeut.
22:1–4 bEx.

aprescribed manner. So bthe priest shall make atonement on his behalf for his sin which he has committed, and it shall be forgiven him.
11 ‘But if he is anot able to bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons, then he who sinned shall bring for his offering one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour as a sin offering. bHe shall put no oil on it, nor shall he put frankincense on it, for it is a sin offering.
12 ‘Then he shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it aas a memorial portion, and burn it on the altar baccording to the offerings made by fire to the LORD. It is a sin offering.
13 a‘The priest shall make atonement for him, 1for his sin that he has committed in any of these matters; and it shall be forgiven him. bThe rest shall be the priest’s as a grain offering.’ ”

Offerings with Restitution

14 Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying:
15 a“If a person commits a trespass, and sins unintentionally in regard to the holy things of the LORD, then bhe shall bring to the LORD as his trespass offering a ram without blemish from the flocks, with your valuation in shekels of silver according to cthe shekel of the sanctuary, as a trespass offering.
16 “And he shall make restitution for the harm that he has done in regard to the holy thing, aand shall add one-fifth to it and give it to the priest. bSo the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering, and it shall be forgiven him.
17 “If a person sins, and commits any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of the LORD, athough he does not know it, yet he is bguilty and shall bear his 1iniquity. 18 a“And he shall bring to the priest a ram without blemish from the flock, with your valuation, as a trespass offering. So the priest shall make atonement for him regarding his ignorance in which he erred and did not know it, and it shall be forgiven him.
19 “It is a trespass offering; ahe has certainly trespassed against the LORD.”


1 And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying:
2 “If a person sins and acommits a trespass against the LORD by blying1 to his neighbor about cwhat was delivered to him for safekeeping, or about 2a pledge, or about a robbery, or if he has dextorted from his neighbor,
3 “or if he ahas found what was lost and lies concerning it, and bswears falsely—in any one of these

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things that a man may do in which he sins:
4 “then it shall be, because he has sinned and is guilty, that he shall 1restore awhat he has stolen, or the thing which he has extorted, or what was delivered to him for safekeeping, or the lost thing which he found,
5 “or all that about which he has sworn falsely. He shall arestore its full value, add one-fifth more to it, and give it to whomever it belongs, on the day of his trespass offering.
6 “And he shall bring his trespass offering to the LORD, aa ram without blemish from the flock, with your 1valuation, as a trespass offering, to the priest.
7 a“So the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD, and he shall be forgiven for any one of these things that he may have done in which he trespasses.”

The Law of the Burnt Offering

8 Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
9 “Command Aaron and his sons, saying, ‘This is the alaw of the burnt offering: The burnt offering shall be on the hearth upon the altar all night until morning, and the fire of the altar shall be kept burning on it.
10 a‘And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen trousers he shall put on his body, and take up the ashes of the burnt offering which the fire has consumed on the altar, and he shall put them bbeside the altar.
11 ‘Then ahe shall take off his garments, put on other garments, and carry the ashes outside the camp bto a clean place.
12 ‘And the fire on the altar shall be kept burning on it; it shall not be put out. And the priest shall burn wood on it every morning, and lay the burnt offering in order on it; and he shall burn on it athe fat of the peace offerings.
13 ‘A fire shall always be burning on the aaltar; it shall never go out.

The Law of the Grain Offering

14 ‘This is the law of the grain offering: The sons of Aaron shall offer it on the altar before the LORD.
15 ‘He shall take from it his handful of the fine flour of the grain offering, with its oil, and all the frankincense which is on the grain offering, and shall burn it on the altar for a sweet aroma, as a memorial to the LORD.
16 ‘And the remainder of it Aaron and his sons shall eat; with unleavened bread it shall be eaten in a holy place; in the court of the tabernacle of meeting they shall eat it.
17 ‘It shall not be baked with leaven. I have given it as their 1portion of My offerings made by fire;

4 aLev. 24:18,
21 1return
5 aLev. 5:16;
Num. 5:7, 8;
2 Sam. 12:6
6 aLev. 1:3;
7 aLev. 4:26
9 aEx.
Num. 28:3–10
10 aEx.
28:39–43; Lev.
16:4; Ezek.
44:17, 18 bLev.
11 aEzek.
44:19 bLev.
12 aLev. 3:3, 5,
9, 14
13 aLev. 1:7
17 aLev. 7:7
18 aLev. 6:29;
7:6; Num.
18:10; 1 Cor.
9:13 bLev. 3:17
cEx. 29:37;
Lev. 22:3–7;
Num. 4:15;
Hag. 2:11–13
20 aEx. 29:2
bEx. 16:36
21 aLev. 2:5;
7:9 1pleasing
22 aLev. 4:3
bEx. 29:25
25 aLev. 1:1, 3,
5, 11
26 a[Lev. 10:17,
18]; Num.
18:9, 10;
[Ezek. 44:28,
29] 27 aEx. 29:37;
Num. 4:15;
Hag. 2:11–13
1Lit. shall
28 aLev. 11:33;
30 aLev. 4:7,
11, 12, 18, 21;
10:18; 16:27;
[Heb. 13:11,
12] bEx. 26:33
cLev. 6:16, 23,
26 dLev. 16:27
1The Most
Holy Place
when capitalized

CHAPTER 7 References

1 aLev.


it is most holy, like the sin offering and the atrespass offering.
18 a‘All the males among the children of Aaron may eat it. bIt shall be a statute forever in your generations concerning the offerings made by fire to the LORD. cEveryone who touches them must be holy.’ ”
19 And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
20 a“This is the offering of Aaron and his sons, which they shall offer to the LORD, beginning on the day when he is anointed: one-tenth of an bephah of fine flour as a daily grain offering, half of it in the morning and half of it at night.
21 “It shall be made in a apan with oil. When it is mixed, you shall bring it in. The baked pieces of the grain offering you shall offer for a 1sweet aroma to the LORD.
22 “The priest from among his sons, awho is anointed in his place, shall offer it. It is a statute forever to the LORD. bIt shall be 1wholly burned.
23 “For every grain offering for the priest shall be wholly burned. It shall not be eaten.”

The Law of the Sin Offering

24 Also the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
25 “Speak to Aaron and to his sons, saying, ‘This is the law of the sin offering: aIn the place where the burnt offering is killed, the sin offering shall be killed before the LORD. It is most holy.
26 a‘The priest who offers it for sin shall eat it. In a holy place it shall be eaten, in the court of the tabernacle of meeting.
27 a‘Everyone who touches its flesh 1must be holy.And when its blood is sprinkled on any garment, you shall wash that on which it was sprinkled, in a holy place.
28 ‘But the earthen vessel in which it is boiled ashall be broken. And if it is boiled in a bronze pot, it shall be both scoured and rinsed in water.
29 ‘All the males among the priests may eat it. It is most holy.
30 a‘But no sin offering from which any of the blood is brought into the tabernacle of meeting, to make atonement in 1the holy bplace, shall be ceaten. It shall be dburned in the fire.

The Law of the Trespass Offering


1 ‘Likewise athis is the law of the trespass offering (it is most holy):
2 ‘In the place where they kill the burnt offering they shall kill the trespass offering. And its blood he shall sprinkle all around on the altar.
3 ‘And he shall offer from it all its fat. The fat tail and the fat that covers the entrails,
4 ‘the two kidneys and the fat that

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is on them by the flanks, and the fatty lobe attached to the liver above the kidneys, he shall remove;
5 ‘and the priest shall burn them on the altar as an offering made by fire to the LORD. It is a trespass offering.
6 a‘Every male among the priests may eat it. It shall be eaten in a holy place. bIt is most holy.
7 a‘The trespass offering is like the sin offering; there is one law for them both: the priest who makes atonement with it shall have it.
8 ‘And the priest who offers anyone’s burnt offering, that priest shall have for himself the skin of the burnt offering which he has offered.
9 ‘Also aevery grain offering that is baked in the oven and all that is prepared in the covered pan, or 1in a pan, shall be the priest’s who offers it.
10 ‘Every grain offering, whether mixed with oil or dry, shall belong to all the sons of Aaron, to one as much as the other.

The Law of Peace Offerings

11 a‘This is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings which he shall offer to the LORD:
12 ‘If he offers it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer, with the sacrifice of thanksgiving, unleavened cakes mixed with oil, unleavened wafers aanointed with oil, or cakes of blended flour mixed with oil.
13 ‘Besides the cakes, as his offering he shall offer aleavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offering.
14 ‘And from it he shall offer one cake from each offering as a heave offering to the LORD. aIt shall belong to the priest who sprinkles the blood of the peace offering.
15 a‘The flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offering for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day it is offered. He shall not leave any of it until morning.
16 ‘But aif the sacrifice of his offering is a vow or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he offers his sacrifice; but on the next day the remainder of it also may be eaten;
17 ‘the remainder of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day must be burned with fire.
18 ‘And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offering is eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, nor shall it be aimputed to him; it shall be an babomination to him who offers it, and the person who eats of it shall bear 1guilt.
19 ‘The flesh that touches any unclean thing shall not be eaten. It shall be burned with fire. And as for the clean flesh, all who are 1clean may eat of it.

6 aLev.
6:16–18, 29;
Num. 18:9
bLev. 2:3
7 aLev.
6:24–30; 14:13
9 aLev. 2:3, 10;
Num. 18:9;
Ezek. 44:29
1on a griddle
11 aLev. 3:1;
22:18, 21;
Ezek. 45:15
12 aLev. 2:4;
Num. 6:15
13 aLev. 2:12;
23:17, 18;
Amos 4:5
14 aNum. 18:8,
11, 19
15 aLev. 22:29,
16 aLev. 19:5–8
18 aNum. 18:27
bLev. 11:10,
11, 41; 19:7;
[Prov. 15:8] 1his iniquity
19 1pure
20 a[Heb. 2:17] bLev. 5:3; 15:3;
22:3–7; Num.
19:13; [1 Cor.
11:28] cGen.
17:14; Ex.
21 aLev. 5:2, 3,
5 bLev. 11:24,
28 cEzek. 4:14
dLev. 7:20 1So
with MT,
Sam., Syr.,
Tg. swarming
thing (cf. 5:2)
23 aLev. 3:17;
Deut. 14:21;
Ezek. 4:14;
26 aGen. 9:4;
Lev. 3:17;
19:26; Deut.
12:23; 1 Sam.
14:33; Ezek.
33:25; [John
6:53]; Acts
15:20, 29
29 aLev. 3:1;
22:21; Ezek.
30 aLev. 3:3, 4,
9, 14 bEx.
29:24, 27; Lev.
8:27; 9:21;
Num. 6:20
31 aLev. 3:5,
11, 16 bNum.
18:11; Deut.
32 aEx. 29:27;
Lev. 7:34;
9:21; Num.
34 aEx. 29:28;
Lev. 10:14, 15;
Num. 18:18,
19; Deut. 18:3

20 ‘But the person who eats the flesh of the sacrifice of the peace offering that belongs to the aLORD, bwhile he is unclean, that person cshall be cut off from his people.
21 ‘Moreover the person who touches any unclean thing, such as ahuman uncleanness, an bunclean animal, or any cabominable1 unclean thing, and who eats the flesh of the sacrifice of the peace offering that belongs to the LORD, that person dshall be cut off from his people.’ ” Fat and Blood May Not Be Eaten
22 And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
23 “Speak to the children of Israel, saying: a‘You shall not eat any fat, of ox or sheep or goat.
24 ‘And the fat of an animal that dies naturally, and the fat of what is torn by wild beasts, may be used in any other way; but you shall by no means eat it.
25 ‘For whoever eats the fat of the animal of which men offer an offering made by fire to the LORD, the person who eats it shall be cut off from his people.
26 a‘Moreover you shall not eat any blood in any of your dwellings, whether of bird or beast.
27 ‘Whoever eats any blood, that person shall be cut off from his people.’ ” The Portion of Aaron and His Sons
28 Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
29 “Speak to the children of Israel, saying: a‘He who offers the sacrifice of his peace offering to the LORD shall bring his offering to the LORD from the sacrifice of his peace offering.
30 a‘His own hands shall bring the offerings made by fire to the LORD. The fat with the breast he shall bring, that the bbreast may be waved as a wave offering before the LORD.
31 a‘And the priest shall burn the fat on the altar, but the bbreast shall be Aaron’s and his sons’.
32 a‘Also the right thigh you shall give to the priest as a heave offering from the sacrifices of your peace offerings.
33 ‘He among the sons of Aaron, who offers the blood of the peace offering and the fat, shall have the right thigh for his part.
34 ‘For athe breast of the wave offering and the thigh of the heave offering I have taken from the children of Israel, from the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and I have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons from the children of Israel by a statute forever.’ ”
35 This is the consecrated portion for Aaron and his sons, from the of-

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ferings made by fire to the LORD, on the day when Moses presented them to 1minister to the LORD as priests.
36 The LORD commanded this to be given to them by the children of Israel, aon the day that He anointed them, by a statute forever throughout their generations.
37 This is the law aof the burnt offering, bthe grain offering, cthe sin offering, dthe trespass offering, ethe consecrations, and fthe sacrifice of the peace offering,
38 which the LORD commanded Moses on Mount Sinai, on the day when He commanded the children of Israel ato offer their offerings to the LORD in the Wilderness of Sinai.

35 1serve
36 aEx.
40:13–15; Lev.
8:12, 30
37 aLev. 6:9
bLev. 6:14
cLev. 6:25
dLev. 7:1 eEx.
29:1; Lev. 6:20
fLev. 7:11
38 aLev. 1:1, 2;
Deut. 4:5

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The LORD a Fortress in Adversity

To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.

1 IN aYou, O LORD, I 1put my trust; Let me never be ashamed; Deliver me in Your righteousness.
2 aBow down Your ear to me, Deliver me speedily; Be my rock of 1refuge, A 2fortress of defense to save me.

3 aFor You are my rock and my fortress; Therefore, bfor Your name’s sake, Lead me and guide me.
4 Pull me out of the net which they have secretly laid for me, For You are my strength.
5 aInto Your hand I commit my spirit; You have redeemed me, O LORD God of btruth.

6 I have hated those awho regard useless idols; But I trust in the LORD.
7 I will be glad and rejoice in Your mercy, For You have considered my trouble; You have aknown my soul in 1adversities,
8 And have not ashut1 me up into the hand of the enemy; bYou have set my feet in a wide place.

9 Have mercy on me, O LORD, for I am in trouble; aMy eye wastes away with grief, Yes, my soul and my 1body!
10 For my life is spent with grief, And my years with sighing; My strength fails because of my iniquity, And my bones waste away.
11 aI am a 1reproach among all my enemies, But bespecially among my neighbors, And am repulsive to my acquaintances;
cThose who see me outside flee from me.
12 aI am forgotten like a dead man, out of mind; I am like a 1broken vessel.

PSALM 31 References

1 aPs. 22:5
1have taken
2 aPs. 17:6;
71:2; 86:1;
1strength 2Lit.
house of
3 a[Ps. 18:2] bPs. 23:3;
5 aLuke 23:46
b[Deut. 32:4];
Ps. 71:22
6 aJon. 2:8
7 a[John 10:27] 1troubles
8 a[Deut.
32:30]; Ps.
37:33 b[Ps.
4:1; 18:19] 1given me
9 aPs. 6:7 1Lit.
11 a[Is. 53:4] bJob 19:13;
Ps. 38:11;
88:8, 18 cPs.
64:8 1despised
12 aPs. 88:4, 5
1Lit. perishing
13 aPs. 50:20;
Jer. 20:10
bLam. 2:22
cPs. 62:4;
Matt. 27:1
15 a[Job 14:5;
24:1] 16 aPs. 4:6;
17 aPs. 25:2, 20
b[1 Sam. 2:9];
Ps. 94:17;
18 aPs. 109:2;
120:2 b[1 Sam.
2:3]; Ps. 94:4;
[Jude 15] 19 aPs. 145:7;
[Rom. 2:4;
11:22] 20 a[Ps. 27:5;
32:7] bJob
5:21 1shelter
21 a[Ps. 17:7] 1fortified
24 a[Ps. 27:14

13 aFor I hear the slander of many; bFear is on every side; While they ctake counsel together against me, They scheme to take away my life.

14 But as for me, I trust in You, O LORD; I say, “You are my God.”
15 My times are in Your ahand; Deliver me from the hand of my enemies, And from those who persecute me.
16 aMake Your face shine upon Your servant; Save me for Your mercies’ sake.
17 aDo not let me be ashamed, O LORD, for I have called upon You; Let the wicked be ashamed; bLet them be silent in the grave.
18 aLet the lying lips be put to silence, Which bspeak insolent things proudly and contemptuously against the righteous.

19 aOh, how great is Your goodness, Which You have laid up for those who fear You, Which You have prepared for those who trust in You In the presence of the sons of men!
20 aYou shall hide them in the secret place of Your presence From the plots of man; bYou shall keep them secretly in a 1pavilion From the strife of tongues.

21 Blessed be the LORD, For aHe has shown me His marvelous kindness in a 1strong city!
22 For I said in my haste, “I am cut off from before Your eyes”; Nevertheless You heard the voice of my supplications When I cried out to You.

23 Oh, love the LORD, all you His saints! For the LORD preserves the faithful, And fully repays the proud person.
24 aBe of good courage, And He shall strengthen your heart, All you who hope in the LORD.




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