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Rise & Fall of Israel’s Kingdom

(Category 7 of 16)

page 250

Saul’s Unlawful Sacrifice

13

1 Saul 1reigned one year; and when he had reigned two years over Israel,
2 Saul chose for himself three thousand men of Israel. Two thousand were with Saul in aMichmash and in the mountains of Bethel, and a thousand were with bJonathan in cGibeah of Benjamin. The rest of the people he sent away, every man to his tent.
3 And Jonathan attacked athe garrison of the Philistines that was in bGeba, and the Philistines heard of it. Then Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, “Let the Hebrews hear!”
4 Now all Israel heard it said that Saul had attacked a garrison of the Philistines, and that Israel had also become 1an abomination to the Philistines. And the people were called together to Saul at Gilgal.
5 Then the Philistines gathered together to fight with Israel, 1thirty thousand chariots and six thousand horsemen, and people aas the sand

CHAPTER 13 References

1 1Heb. is difficult;
cf.
2 Sam. 5:4;
2 Kin. 14:2;
see also
2 Sam. 2:10;
Acts 13:21
2 a1 Sam.
14:5, 31
b1 Sam. 14:1
c1 Sam. 10:26
3 a1 Sam. 10:5
b2 Sam. 5:25
4 1odious
5 aJudg. 7:12
bJosh. 7:2 1So
with MT,
LXX, Tg.,Vg.;
Syr. and some
mss. of LXX
three thousand
6 aJudg. 6:2
7 aNum.
32:1–42
8 a1 Sam. 10:8
10 1Lit. bless
him
13 a2 Chr. 16:9
b1 Sam. 15:11,
22, 28
14 a1 Sam.
15:28; 31:6
b1 Sam. 16:1
cActs 7:46;
13:22 d1 Sam.
15:11, 19
15 a1 Sam.
13:2, 6, 7; 14:2
1So with MT,
Tg.; LXX,Vg.
add And the
rest of the
people went
up after Saul
to meet the
people who
fought
against them,
going from
Gilgal to
Gibeah in the
hill of Benjamin.
16 1Heb. Geba
17 aJosh. 18:23
18 aJosh. 16:3;
18:13, 14

which is on the seashore in multitude. And they came up and encamped in Michmash, to the east of bBeth Aven.
6 When the men of Israel saw that they were in danger (for the people were distressed), then the people ahid in caves, in thickets, in rocks, in holes, and in pits.
7 And some of the Hebrews crossed over the Jordan to the aland of Gad and Gilead. As for Saul, he was still in Gilgal, and all the people followed him trembling.
8 aThen he waited seven days, according to the time set by Samuel. But Samuel did not come to Gilgal; and the people were scattered from him.
9 So Saul said, “Bring a burnt offering and peace offerings here to me.” And he offered the burnt offering.
10 Now it happened, as soon as he had finished presenting the burnt offering, that Samuel came; and Saul went out to meet him, that he might 1greet him.
11 And Samuel said, “What have you done?” Saul said, “When I saw that the people were scattered from me, and that you did not come within the days appointed, and that the Philistines gathered together at Michmash,
12 “then I said, ‘The Philistines will now come down on me at Gilgal, and I have not made supplication to the LORD.’ Therefore I felt compelled, and offered a burnt offering.”
13 And Samuel said to Saul, a“You have done foolishly. bYou have not kept the commandment of the LORD your God, which He commanded you. For now the LORD would have established your kingdom over Israel forever.
14 a“But now your kingdom shall not continue. bThe LORD has sought for Himself a man cafter His own heart, and the LORD has commanded him to be commander over His people, because you have dnot kept what the LORD commanded you.”
15 Then Samuel arose and went up from Gilgal to Gibeah of 1Benjamin. And Saul numbered the people present with him, aabout six hundred men.

No Weapons for the Army

16 Saul, Jonathan his son, and the people present with them remained in 1Gibeah of Benjamin. But the Philistines encamped in Michmash.
17 Then raiders came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies. One company turned onto the road to aOphrah, to the land of Shual,
18 another company turned to the road to aBeth Horon, and another company turned to the road of the

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border that overlooks the Valley of bZeboim toward the wilderness.
19 Now athere was no blacksmith to be found throughout all the land of Israel, for the Philistines said, “Lest the Hebrews make swords or spears.”
20 But all the Israelites would go down to the Philistines to sharpen each man’s plowshare, his mattock, his ax, and his sickle;
21 and the charge for a sharpening was a 1pim for the plowshares, the mattocks, the forks, and the axes, and to set the points of the goads.
22 So it came about, on the day of battle, that athere was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people who were with Saul and Jonathan. But they were found with Saul and Jonathan his son.
23 aAnd the garrison of the Philistines went out to the pass of Michmash.

Jonathan Defeats the Philistines

14

1 Now it happened one day that Jonathan the son of Saul said to the young man who 1bore his armor, “Come, let us go over to the Philistines’ garrison that is on the other side.” But he did not tell his father.
2 And Saul was sitting in the outskirts of aGibeah under a pomegranate tree which is in Migron. The people who were with him were about six hundred men.
3 aAhijah the son of Ahitub, bIchabod’s brother, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, the LORD’s priest in Shiloh, was cwearing an ephod. But the people did not know that Jonathan had gone.
4 Between the passes, by which Jonathan sought to go over ato the Philistines’ garrison, there was a sharp rock on one side and a sharp rock on the other side. And the name of one was Bozez, and the name of the other Seneh.
5 The front of one faced northward opposite Michmash, and the other southward opposite Gibeah.
6 Then Jonathan said to the young man who bore his armor, “Come, let us go over to the garrison of these auncircumcised; it may be that the LORD will work for us. For nothing restrains the LORD bfrom saving by many or by few.”
7 So his armorbearer said to him, “Do all that is in your heart. Go then; here I am with you, according to your heart.”
8 Then Jonathan said, “Very well, let us cross over to these men, and we will show ourselves to them.
9 “If they say thus to us, ‘Wait until we come to you,’ then we will stand still in our place and not go up to them.

18 bGen. 14:2;
Neh. 11:34
19 aJudg. 5:8;
2 Kin. 24:14;
Jer. 24:1; 29:2
21 1About twothirds
shekel
weight
22 aJudg. 5:8
23 a1 Sam.
14:1, 4

CHAPTER 14 References

1 1carried2 a1 Sam.
13:15, 16
3 a1 Sam. 22:9,
11, 20 b1 Sam.
4:21 c1 Sam.
2:28
4 a1 Sam.
13:23
6 a1 Sam.
17:26, 36; Jer.
9:25, 26 bJudg.
7:4, 7; 1 Sam.
17:46, 47;
2 Chr. 14:11;
[Ps. 115:3;
135:6; Zech.
4:6; Matt.
19:26; Rom.
8:31] 10 aGen. 24:14;
Judg. 6:36–40
11 a1 Sam.
13:6; 14:22
12 1teach
13 aLev. 26:8;
Josh. 23:10
14 1Lit. half
the area
plowed by a
yoke of oxen
in a day
15 aDeut. 28:7;
2 Kin. 7:6, 7;
Job 18:11
b1 Sam. 13:17
cGen. 35:5
1terror
16 a1 Sam.
14:20
18 1So with
MT, Tg.,Vg.;
LXX ephod
2See preceding
note
19 aNum. 27:21
20 aJudg. 7:22;
2 Chr. 20:23
22 a1 Sam.
13:6
23 aEx. 14:30;
2 Chr. 32:22;
Hos. 1:7
b1 Sam. 13:5

1 SAMUEL 14:23

10 “But if they say thus, ‘Come up to us,’ then we will go up. For the LORD has delivered them into our hand, and athis will be a sign to us.”
11 So both of them showed themselves to the garrison of the Philistines. And the Philistines said, “Look, the Hebrews are coming out of the holes where they have ahidden.”
12 Then the men of the garrison called to Jonathan and his armorbearer, and said, “Come up to us, and we will 1show you something.” Jonathan said to his armorbearer, “Come up after me, for the LORD has delivered them into the hand of Israel.”
13 And Jonathan climbed up on his hands and knees with his armorbearer after him; and they afell before Jonathan. And as he came after him, his armorbearer killed them.
14 That first slaughter which Jonathan and his armorbearer made was about twenty men within about 1half an acre of land.
15 And athere was 1trembling in the camp, in the field, and among all the people. The garrison and bthe raiders also trembled; and the earth quaked, so that it was ca very great trembling.
16 Now the watchmen of Saul in Gibeah of Benjamin looked, and there was the multitude, melting away; and they awent here and there.
17 Then Saul said to the people who were with him, “Now call the roll and see who has gone from us.” And when they had called the roll, surprisingly, Jonathan and his armorbearer were not there.
18 And Saul said to Ahijah, “Bring the 1ark of God here” (for at that time the 2ark of God was with the children of Israel).
19 Now it happened, while Saul atalked to the priest, that the noise which was in the camp of the Philistines continued to increase; so Saul said to the priest, “Withdraw your hand.”
20 Then Saul and all the people who were with him assembled, and they went to the battle; and indeed aevery man’s sword was against his neighbor, and there was very great confusion.
21 Moreover the Hebrews who were with the Philistines before that time,who went up with them into the camp from the surrounding country, they also joined the Israelites who were with Saul and Jonathan.
22 Likewise all the men of Israel who ahad hidden in the mountains of Ephraim, when they heard that the Philistines fled, they also followed hard after them in the battle.
23 aSo the LORD saved Israel that day, and the battle shifted bto Beth Aven.

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1 SAMUEL 14:24

Saul’s Rash Oath

24 And the men of Israel were distressed that day, for Saul had aplaced the people under oath, saying, “Cursed is the man who eats any food until evening, before I have taken vengeance on my enemies.” So none of the people tasted food.
25 aNow all the people of the land came to a forest; and there was bhoney on the ground.
26 And when the people had come into the woods, there was the honey, dripping; but no one put his hand to his mouth, for the people feared the oath.
27 But Jonathan had not heard his father charge the people with the oath; therefore he stretched out the end of the rod that was in his hand and dipped it in a honeycomb, and put his hand to his mouth; and his 1countenance brightened.
28 Then one of the people said, “Your father strictly charged the people with an oath, saying, ‘Cursed is the man who eats food this day.’ ” And the people were faint.
29 But Jonathan said, “My father has troubled the land. Look now, how my countenance has brightened because I tasted a little of this honey.
30 “How much better if the people had eaten freely today of the spoil of their enemies which they found! For now would there not have been a much greater slaughter among the Philistines?”
31 Now they had 1driven back the Philistines that day from Michmash to Aijalon. So the people were very faint.
32 And the people rushed on the 1spoil, and took sheep, oxen, and calves, and slaughtered them on the ground; and the people ate them awith the blood.
33 Then they told Saul, saying, “Look, the people are sinning against the LORD by eating with the blood!” So he said, “You have dealt treacherously; roll a large stone to me this day.”
34 Then Saul said, “Disperse yourselves among the people, and say to them, ‘Bring me here every man’s ox and every man’s sheep, slaughter them here, and eat; and do not sin against the LORD by eating with the blood.’ ” So every one of the people brought his ox with him that night, and slaughtered it there.
35 Then Saul abuilt an altar to the LORD. This was the first altar that he built to the LORD.
36 Now Saul said, “Let us go down after the Philistines by night, and plunder them until the morning light; and let us not leave a man of them.” And they said, “Do whatever seems good to you.” Then the priest said, “Let us draw near to God here.”

24 aJosh. 6:26
25 aDeut. 9:28;
Matt. 3:5 bEx.
3:8; Num.
13:27; Matt.
3:4
27 1Lit. eyes
31 1Lit. struck
32 aGen. 9:4;
Lev. 3:17;
17:10–14;
19:26; Deut.
12:16, 23, 24;
Acts 15:20
1plunder
35 a1 Sam.
7:12, 17;
2 Sam. 24:25
37 aJudg. 20:18
b1 Sam. 28:6
38 aJosh. 7:14;
1 Sam. 10:19
39 a1 Sam.
14:24, 44;
2 Sam. 12:5
41 aProv.
16:33; Acts
1:24–26 bJosh.
7:16; 1 Sam.
10:20, 21 1So
with MT, Tg.;
LXX,Vg. Why
do You not
answer Your
servant
today? If the
injustice is
with me or
Jonathan my
son, O LORD
God of Israel,
give proof;
and if You say
it is with Your
people Israel,
give holiness.
43 aJosh. 7:19
b1 Sam. 14:27
44 aRuth 1:17;
1 Sam. 25:22
b1 Sam. 14:39
45 a2 Sam.
14:11; 1 Kin.
1:52; Luke
21:18; Acts
27:34 b[2 Cor.
6:1; Phil. 2:12,
13] 47 a1 Sam.
11:1–13
b2 Sam. 10:6
1LXX,Vg.
prospered
48 aEx. 17:16;
1 Sam. 15:3–7
1Lit. struck
49 a1 Sam.
31:2; 1 Chr.
8:33 b1 Sam.
18:17–20, 27;
19:12 1Abinadab,
1 Chr.
8:33; 9:39
50 a1 Sam.
10:14
51 a1 Sam. 9:1,
21

37 So Saul aasked counsel of God, “Shall I go down after the Philistines? Will You deliver them into the hand of Israel?” But bHe did not answer him that day.
38 And Saul said, a“Come over here, all you chiefs of the people, and know and see what this sin was today.
39 “For aas the LORD lives, who saves Israel, though it be in Jonathan my son, he shall surely die.” But not a man among all the people answered him.
40 Then he said to all Israel, “You be on one side, and my son Jonathan and I will be on the other side.” And the people said to Saul, “Do what seems good to you.”
41 Therefore Saul said to the LORD God of Israel, a“Give1 a perfect lot.” bSo Saul and Jonathan were taken, but the people escaped.
42 And Saul said, “Cast lots between my son Jonathan and me.” So Jonathan was taken.
43 Then Saul said to Jonathan, a“Tell me what you have done.” And Jonathan told him, and said, b“I only tasted a little honey with the end of the rod that was in my hand. So now I must die!”
44 Saul answered, a“God do so and more also; bfor you shall surely die, Jonathan.”
45 But the people said to Saul, “Shall Jonathan die, who has accomplished this great deliverance in Israel? Certainly not! aAs the LORD lives, not one hair of his head shall fall to the ground, for he has worked bwith God this day.” So the people rescued Jonathan, and he did not die.
46 Then Saul returned from pursuing the Philistines, and the Philistines went to their own place.

Saul’s Continuing Wars

47 So Saul established his sovereignty over Israel, and fought against all his enemies on every side, against Moab, against the people of aAmmon, against Edom, against the kings of bZobah, and against the Philistines.Wherever he turned, he 1harassed them.
48 And he gathered an army and aattacked1 the Amalekites, and delivered Israel from the hands of those who plundered them.
49 aThe sons of Saul were Jonathan, 1Jishui, and Malchishua. And the names of his two daughters were these: the name of the firstborn Merab, and the name of the younger bMichal.
50 The name of Saul’s wife was Ahinoam the daughter of Ahimaaz. And the name of the commander of his army was Abner the son of Ner, Saul’s auncle.
51 aKish was the father of Saul, and

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Ner the father of Abner was the son of Abiel.
52 Now there was fierce war with the Philistines all the days of Saul. And when Saul saw any strong man or any valiant man, ahe took him for himself.

52 a1 Sam.
8:11

page 517

PSALM 81

An Appeal for Israel’s Repentance

To the Chief Musician. aOn1 an instrument of Gath. A Psalm of Asaph.

1 SING aloud to God our strength; Make a joyful shout to the God of Jacob.
2 Raise a song and strike the timbrel, The pleasant harp with the lute.

3 Blow the trumpet at the time of the New Moon, At the full moon, on our solemn feast day.
4 For athis is a statute for Israel, A law of the God of Jacob.
5 This He established in Joseph as a testimony, When He went throughout the land of Egypt, aWhere I heard a language I did not understand.

6 “I removed his shoulder from the burden; His hands were freed from the baskets.
7 aYou called in trouble, and I delivered you; bI answered you in the secret place of thunder; I ctested you at the waters of 1Meribah. Selah

PSALM 81 References

title aPs. 8:title
1Heb. Al Gittith
4 aLev. 23:24;
Num. 10:10
5 aDeut. 28:49;
Ps. 114:1; Jer.
5:15
7 aEx. 2:23;
14:10; Ps.
50:15 bEx.
19:19; 20:18
cEx. 17:6, 7;
Num. 20:13
1Lit. Strife or
Contention
8 a[Ps. 50:7] 9 a[Ex. 20:3;
Deut. 5:7;
32:12]; Ps.
44:20; [Is.
43:12] 10 aEx. 20:2;
Deut. 5:6 bPs.
103:5

8 “Hear,a O My people, and I will admonish you! O Israel, if you will listen to Me!
9 There shall be no aforeign god among you; Nor shall you worship any foreign god.
10 aI am the LORD your God, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt; bOpen your mouth wide, and I will fill it.
11 “But My people would not heed My voice, And Israel would have anone of Me.
12 aSo I gave them over to 1their own stubborn heart, To walk in their own counsels.

13 “Oh,a that My people would listen to Me, That Israel would walk in My ways!
14 I would soon subdue their enemies, And turn My hand against their adversaries.
15 aThe haters of the LORD would pretend submission to Him, But their 1fate would endure forever.
16 He would ahave fed them also with 1the finest of wheat; And with honey bfrom the rock I would have satisfied you.”

 
 

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