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The Prophets Before the Exile

(Category 8 of 16)

Watch our Read Scripture video on the book of Isaiah, which breaks down the literary design of the book and its flow of thought. This is the first of two Read Scripture videos dedicated to the book of Isaiah, which aims to help you see its unique contribution to the story of Jesus, but also how it works within the Bible’s overall framework.

Isaiah announces that God’s judgment will purify Israel and prepare his people for the coming messianic king and the new Jerusalem.

Explore Isaiah

Isaiah 1-39 (RS)

 

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The Book of

ISAIAH

ISAIAH is like a miniature Bible. The first thirty-nine chapters (like the thirtynine
books of the Old Testament) are filled with judgment upon immoral and
idolatrous men. Judah has sinned; the surrounding nations have sinned; the whole
earth has sinned. Judgment must come, for God cannot allow such blatant sin to
go unpunished forever. But the final twenty-seven chapters (like the twenty-seven
books of the New Testament) declare a message of hope. The Messiah is coming
as a Savior and Sovereign to bear a cross and to wear a crown.
Isaiah’s prophetic ministry, spanning the reigns of four kings of Judah, covers
at least forty years.
Yesha’yahu and its shortened form Yeshaiah mean “Yahweh Is Salvation.” This
name is an excellent summary of the contents of the book. The Greek form in the
Septuagint is Hesaias, and the Latin form is Esaias or Isaias.
 
 

1

1 THE avision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the bdays of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

The Wickedness of Judah

2 aHear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth! For the LORD has spoken: “I have nourished and brought up children, And they have rebelled against Me;
3 aThe ox knows its owner And the donkey its master’s 1crib; But Israel bdoes not know, My people do not 2consider.”

4 Alas, sinful nation, A people 1laden with iniquity, aA 2brood of evildoers, Children who are corrupters! They have forsaken the LORD, They have provoked to anger The Holy One of Israel, They have turned away backward.

CHAPTER 1 References

1 aNum. 12:6
b2 Chr. 26—32
2 aJer. 2:12
3 aJer. 8:7 bJer.
9:3, 6 1manger
or feed trough
2understand
4 aIs. 57:3, 4;
Matt. 3:7 1Lit.
heavy,
weighed
down 2offspring,
seed
5 aJer. 5:3
7 aDeut. 28:51,
52; 2 Chr.
36:19
8 aJob 27:18
bJer. 4:17
1shelter
9 a2 Kin.
25:11, 22;
Lam. 3:22

5 aWhy should you be stricken again? You will revolt more and more. The whole head is sick, And the whole heart faints.
6 From the sole of the foot even to the head, There is no soundness in it, But wounds and bruises and putrefying sores; They have not been closed or bound up, Or soothed with ointment.

7 aYour country is desolate, Your cities are burned with fire; Strangers devour your land in your presence; And it is desolate, as overthrown by strangers.
8 So the daughter of Zion is left aas a 1booth in a vineyard, As a hut in a garden of cucumbers, bAs a besieged city.
9 aUnless the LORD of hosts Had left to us a very small remnant,

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ISAIAH 1:10

We would have become like bSodom, We would have been made like Gomorrah.

10 Hear the word of the LORD, You rulers aof Sodom; Give ear to the law of our God, You people of Gomorrah:
11 “To what purpose is the multitude of your asacrifices to Me?” Says the LORD. “I have had enough of burnt offerings of rams And the fat of fed cattle. I do not delight in the blood of bulls, Or of lambs or goats.

12 “When you come ato appear before Me, Who has required this from your hand, To trample My courts?
13 Bring no more afutile1 sacrifices; Incense is an abomination to Me. The New Moons, the Sabbaths, and bthe calling of assemblies— I cannot endure iniquity and the sacred meeting.
14 Your aNew Moons and your bappointed feasts My soul hates; They are a trouble to Me, I am weary of bearing them.
15 aWhen you 1spread out your hands, I will hide My eyes from you; bEven though you make many prayers, I will not hear. Your hands are full of 2blood.

16 “Washa yourselves, make yourselves clean; Put away the evil of your doings from before My eyes. bCease to do evil,
17 Learn to do good; Seek justice, Rebuke 1the oppressor; 2Defend the fatherless, Plead for the widow.

18 “Come now, and let us areason together,” Says the LORD, “Though your sins are like scarlet, bThey shall be as white as snow; Though they are red like crimson, They shall be as wool.
19 If you are willing and obedient, You shall eat the good of the land;
20 But if you refuse and rebel, You shall be devoured by the sword”;

9 bGen. 19:24;
Rom. 9:29
10 aDeut. 32:32
11 a[1 Sam.
15:22] 12 aEx. 23:17
13 aMatt. 15:9
bJoel 1:14
1worthless
14 aNum. 28:11
bLam. 2:6
15 aProv. 1:28
bPs. 66:18; Is.
59:1–3; Mic.
3:4 1Pray
2bloodshed
16 aJer. 4:14
bRom. 12:9
17 1Some ancient
vss. the
oppressed
2Vindicate
18 aIs. 43:26;
Mic. 6:2 bPs.
51:7; [Is.
43:25]; Rev.
7:14
20 aIs. 40:5;
58:14; Mic.
4:4; [Titus 1:2] 21 aIs. 57:3–9;
Jer. 2:20 bMic.
3:1–3 1Unfaithful
22 aJer. 6:28
23 aHos. 9:15
bProv. 29:24
cJer. 22:17 dIs.
10:2; Jer. 5:28;
Ezek. 22:7;
Zech. 7:10
24 aDeut. 28:63
1be relieved of
2avenge Myself
25 aIs. 48:10;
Ezek.
22:19–22; Mal.
3:3 1refine
with lye
26 aJer.
33:7–11 bIs.
33:5; Zech. 8:3
27 1Lit. returners
28 aJob 31:3;
Ps. 9:5; [Is.
66:24;
2 Thess. 1:8,
9] 29 1So with
MT, LXX,Vg.;
some Heb.
mss., Tg. you
2Sites of pagan
worship
31 aEzek.
32:21 bIs.
66:24; Matt.
3:12; Mark
9:43

CHAPTER 2 References

2 aMic. 4:1
bGen. 49:1

aFor the mouth of the LORD has spoken.

The Degenerate City

21 aHow the faithful city has become a 1harlot! It was full of justice; Righteousness lodged in it, But now bmurderers.
22 aYour silver has become dross, Your wine mixed with water.
23 aYour princes are rebellious, And bcompanions of thieves; cEveryone loves bribes, And follows after rewards. They ddo not defend the fatherless, Nor does the cause of the widow come before them.

24 Therefore the Lord says, The LORD of hosts, the Mighty One of Israel, “Ah, aI will 1rid Myself of My adversaries, And 2take vengeance on My enemies.
25 I will turn My hand against you, And athoroughly1 purge away your dross, And take away all your alloy.
26 I will restore your judges aas at the first, And your counselors as at the beginning. Afterward byou shall be called the city of righteousness, the faithful city.”

27 Zion shall be redeemed with justice, And her 1penitents with righteousness.
28 The adestruction of transgressors and of sinners shall be together, And those who forsake the LORD shall be consumed.
29 For 1they shall be ashamed of the 2terebinth trees Which you have desired; And you shall be embarrassed because of the gardens Which you have chosen.
30 For you shall be as a terebinth whose leaf fades, And as a garden that has no water.
31 aThe strong shall be as tinder, And the work of it as a spark; Both will burn together, And no one shall bquench them.

The Future House of God

2

1 The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.

2 Now ait shall come to pass bin the latter days

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cThat the mountain of the LORD’s house Shall be established on the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow to it.
3 Many people shall come and say, a“Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, And we shall walk in His paths.” bFor out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
4 He shall judge between the nations, And rebuke many people; They shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruning 1hooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war anymore.

The Day of the LORD

5 O house of Jacob, come and let us awalk In the light of the LORD.

6 For You have forsaken Your people, the house of Jacob, Because they are filled awith eastern ways; They are bsoothsayers like the Philistines, cAnd they 1are pleased with the children of foreigners.
7 aTheir land is also full of silver and gold, And there is no end to their treasures; Their land is also full of horses, And there is no end to their chariots.
8 aTheir land is also full of idols; They worship the work of their own hands, That which their own fingers have made.
9 People bow down, And each man humbles himself; Therefore do not forgive them.

10 aEnter into the rock, and hide in the dust, From the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty.
11 The 1lofty looks of man shall be ahumbled, The haughtiness of men shall be bowed down, And the LORD alone shall be exalted bin that day.

2 cPs. 68:15
3 aJer. 50:5;
[Zech.
8:21–23;
14:16–21] bLuke 24:47
4 1knives
5 aEph. 5:8
6 aNum. 23:7
bDeut. 18:14
cPs. 106:35
1Or clap,
shake hands
to make bargains
with
the children
7 aDeut. 17:16;
Is. 30:16; 31:1;
Mic. 5:10
8 aIs. 40:19, 20;
Jer. 2:28
10 aIs. 2:19, 21;
Rev. 6:15, 16
11 aProv. 16:5;
Is. 5:15 bHos.
2:16 1proud
13 aIs. 14:8;
Zech. 11:1, 2
14 aIs. 30:25
16 a1 Kin.
10:22; Is. 23:1,
14; 60:9
17 1pride
18 1Or shall
utterly vanish
19 aHos. 10:8;
[Rev. 9:6] b[2 Thess. 1:9] cPs. 18:7; Is.
2:21; 13:13;
24:1, 19, 20;
Hag. 2:6, 7;
Heb. 12:26
1Lit. dust
22 aPs. 146:3;
Jer. 17:5 bJob
27:3 1Lit.
Cease yourselves
from
the man 2Lit.
in what is he
to be esteemed

CHAPTER 3 References

1 a2 Kin. 25:3;
Is. 5:13; Jer.
37:21 bLev.
26:26 1Every
support
2 a2 Kin.
24:14; Is. 9:14,
15; Ezek.
17:12, 13
3 1Eminent
looking men

ISAIAH 3:3

12 For the day of the LORD of hosts Shall come upon everything proud and lofty, Upon everything lifted up— And it shall be brought low—
13 Upon all athe cedars of Lebanon that are high and lifted up, And upon all the oaks of Bashan;
14 aUpon all the high mountains, And upon all the hills that are lifted up;
15 Upon every high tower, And upon every fortified wall;
16 aUpon all the ships of Tarshish, And upon all the beautiful sloops.
17 The 1loftiness of man shall be bowed down, And the haughtiness of men shall be brought low; The LORD alone will be exalted in that day,
18 But the idols 1He shall utterly abolish.

19 They shall go into the aholes of the rocks, And into the caves of the 1earth, bFrom the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty, When He arises cto shake the earth mightily.

20 In that day a man will cast away his idols of silver And his idols of gold, Which they made, each for himself to worship, To the moles and bats,
21 To go into the clefts of the rocks, And into the crags of the rugged rocks, From the terror of the LORD And the glory of His majesty, When He arises to shake the earth mightily.

22 aSever1 yourselves from such a man, Whose bbreath is in his nostrils; For 2of what account is he?

Judgment on Judah and Jerusalem

3

1 For behold, the Lord, the LORD of hosts, aTakes away from Jerusalem and from Judah bThe1 stock and the store, The whole supply of bread and the whole supply of water;
2 aThe mighty man and the man of war, The judge and the prophet, And the diviner and the elder;
3 The captain of fifty and the 1honorable man, The counselor and the skillful artisan, And the expert enchanter.

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ISAIAH 3:4

4 “I will give achildren1 to be their princes, And 2babes shall rule over them.
5 The people will be oppressed, Every one by another and every one by his neighbor; The child will be insolent toward the 1elder, And the 2base toward the honorable.”

6 When a man takes hold of his brother In the house of his father, saying, “You have clothing; You be our ruler, And let these ruins be under your 1power,”
7 In that day he will protest, saying, “I cannot cure your ills, For in my house is neither food nor clothing; Do not make me a ruler of the people.”

8 For aJerusalem stumbled, And Judah is fallen, Because their tongue and their doings Are against the LORD, To provoke the eyes of His glory.
9 The look on their countenance witnesses against them, And they declare their sin as aSodom; They do not hide it. Woe to their soul! For they have brought evil upon themselves.

10 “Say to the righteous athat it shall be well with them, bFor they shall eat the fruit of their doings.
11 Woe to the wicked! aIt shall be ill with him, For the reward of his hands shall be 1given him.
12 As for My people, children are their oppressors, And women rule over them. O My people! aThose who lead you 1cause you to err, And destroy the way of your paths.”

Oppression and Luxury Condemned

13 The LORD stands up ato 1plead, And stands to judge the people.
14 The LORD will enter into judgment With the elders of His people And His princes: “For you have 1eaten up athe vineyard;

4 aEccl. 10:16
1boys 2Or
capricious
ones
5 1aged 2despised,
lightly
esteemed
6 1Lit. hand
8 a2 Chr.
36:16, 17; Mic.
3:12
9 aGen. 13:13;
Is. 1:10–15
10 a[Deut.
28:1–14; Eccl.
8:12; Is. 54:17] bPs. 128:2
11 a[Ps. 11:6;
Eccl. 8:12, 13] 1done to him
12 aIs. 9:16
1lead you
astray
13 aIs. 66:16;
Hos. 4:1; Mic.
6:2 1contend,
plead His
case
14 aMatt. 21:33
1burned
15 aMic. 3:2, 3
16 1Head held
high 2seductive,
ogling
3tripping or
skipping
17 aDeut. 28:27
bJer. 13:22
18 aJudg. 8:21,
26 1headbands
24 aIs. 22:12;
Ezek. 27:31;
Amos 8:10
1burning scar
25 1Lit.
strength
26 aJer. 14:2;
Lam. 1:4
bLam. 2:10

CHAPTER 4 References

1 aIs. 2:11, 17
b2 Thess. 3:12
cLuke 1:25

The plunder of the poor is in your houses.
15 What do you mean by acrushing My people And grinding the faces of the poor?” Says the Lord GOD of hosts.

16 Moreover the LORD says:

“Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, And walk with 1outstretched necks And 2wanton eyes, Walking and 3mincing as they go, Making a jingling with their feet,
17 Therefore the Lord will strike with aa scab The crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, And the LORD will buncover their secret parts.”

18 In that day the Lord will take away the finery: The jingling anklets, the 1scarves, and the acrescents;
19 The pendants, the bracelets, and the veils;
20 The headdresses, the leg ornaments, and the headbands; The perfume boxes, the charms,
21 and the rings; The nose jewels,
22 the festal apparel, and the mantles; The outer garments, the purses,
23 and the mirrors; The fine linen, the turbans, and the robes.

24 And so it shall be:

Instead of a sweet smell there will be a stench; Instead of a sash, a rope; Instead of well-set hair, abaldness; Instead of a rich robe, a girding of sackcloth; And 1branding instead of beauty.
25 Your men shall fall by the sword, And your 1mighty in the war.

26 aHer gates shall lament and mourn, And she being desolate bshall sit on the ground.

4

1 And ain that day seven women shall take hold of one man, saying, “We will beat our own food and wear our own apparel; Only let us be called by your name, To take away cour reproach.”

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The Renewal of Zion

2 In that day athe Branch of the LORD shall be beautiful and glorious; And the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and appealing For those of Israel who have escaped.

3 And it shall come to pass that he who is left in Zion and remains in Jerusalem awill be called holy— everyone who is brecorded among the living in Jerusalem.
4 When athe Lord has washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and purged the 1blood of Jerusalem from her midst, by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of burning,
5 then the LORD will create above every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and above her assemblies, aa cloud and smoke by day and bthe shining of a flaming fire by night. For over all the glory there will be a 1covering.
6 And there will be a tabernacle for shade in the daytime from the heat, afor a place of refuge, and for a shelter from storm and rain.

2 aIs. 12:1–6;
[Jer. 23:5];
Zech. 3:8
3 aIs. 60:21
bPhil. 4:3
4 aMal. 3:2, 3
1bloodshed
5 aEx. 13:21,
22; Num.
9:15–23
bZech. 2:5
1canopy
6 aPs. 27:5; Is.
25:4

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PSALM 109

Plea for Judgment of False Accusers

To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.

1 DOa not keep silent, O God of my praise!
2 For the mouth of the wicked and the mouth of the deceitful Have opened against me; They have spoken against me with a alying tongue.
3 They have also surrounded me with words of hatred, And fought against me awithout a cause.
4 In return for my love they are my accusers, But I give myself to prayer.
5 Thus athey have rewarded me evil for good, And hatred for my love.

6 Set a wicked man over him, And let aan 1accuser stand at his right hand.
7 When he is judged, let him be found guilty, And alet his prayer become sin.
8 Let his days be afew, And blet another take his office.
9 aLet his children be fatherless, And his wife a widow.
10 Let his children 1continually be vagabonds, and beg; Let them 2seek their bread also from their desolate places.

PSALM 109 References

1 aPs. 83:1
2 aPs. 27:12
3 aPs. 35:7;
69:4; John
15:25
5 aPs. 35:7, 12;
38:20; Prov.
17:13
6 aZech. 3:1
1Heb. satan
7 a[Prov. 28:9] 8 a[Ps. 55:23];
John 17:12
bPs. 69:25;
Acts 1:20
9 aEx. 22:24
10 1wander
continuously
1So with MT,
Tg.; LXX,Vg.
be cast out
11 aNeh. 5:7;
Job 5:5; 18:9
13 aJob 18:19;
Ps. 37:28
bProv. 10:7
1descendants
be destroyed
14 a[Ex. 20:5;
Num. 14:18];
Is. 65:6; [Jer.
32:18] bNeh.
4:5; Jer. 18:23
15 aJob 18:17;
[Ps. 34:16] 16 a[Ps. 34:18] 17 aProv.
14:14; [Matt.
7:2] 18 aNum. 5:22

11 aLet the creditor seize all that he has, And let strangers plunder his labor.
12 Let there be none to extend mercy to him, Nor let there be any to favor his fatherless children.
13 aLet his 1posterity be cut off, And in the generation following let their bname be blotted out.

14 aLet the iniquity of his fathers be remembered before the LORD, And let not the sin of his mother bbe blotted out.
15 Let them be continually before the LORD, That He may acut off the memory of them from the earth;
16 Because he did not remember to show mercy, But persecuted the poor and needy man, That he might even slay the abroken in heart.
17 aAs he loved cursing, so let it come to him; As he did not delight in blessing, so let it be far from him.
18 As he clothed himself with cursing as with his garment, So let it aenter his body like water, And like oil into his bones.
19 Let it be to him like the garment which covers him, And for a belt with which he girds himself continually.

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20 Let this be the LORD’s reward to my accusers, And to those who speak evil against my person.

21 But You, O GOD the Lord, Deal with me for Your name’s sake; Because Your mercy is good, deliver me.
22 For I am poor and needy, And my heart is wounded within me.
23 I am gone alike a shadow when it lengthens; I am shaken off like a locust.
24 My aknees are weak through fasting, And my flesh is feeble from lack of fatness.
25 I also have become aa reproach to them; When they look at me, bthey shake their heads.

26 Help me, O LORD my God! Oh, save me according to Your mercy,

PSALM 109 References

23 aPs. 102:11
24 aHeb. 12:12
25 aPs. 22:7;
Jer. 18:16;
Lam. 2:15
bMatt. 27:39;
Mark 15:29
27 aJob 37:7
28 a2 Sam.
6:11, 12 bIs.
65:14
29 aJob 8:22;
Ps. 35:26
30 aPs. 35:18;
111:1
31 a[Ps. 16:8] 1Lit. judging
his soul

27 aThat they may know that this is Your hand— That You, LORD, have done it!
28 aLet them curse, but You bless; When they arise, let them be ashamed, But let bYour servant rejoice.
29 aLet my accusers be clothed with shame, And let them cover themselves with their own disgrace as with a mantle.

30 I will greatly praise the LORD with my mouth; Yes, aI will praise Him among the multitude.
31 For aHe shall stand at the right hand of the poor, To save him from those 1who condemn him.

 
 

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