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Return from Exile

(Category 11 of 16)

Watch our Read Scripture video on the book of Esther, which breaks down the literary design of the book and its flow of thought. There is one Read Scripture video dedicated to the book of Esther, which aims to help you see its unique contribution to the story of Jesus, but also how it works within the Bible’s overall framework.

In Esther, God providentially uses two exiled Israelites to rescue His people from certain doom, without any explicit mention of God or His activity!

Explore Esther

ESTHER: (RS)

 

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The book of

ESTHER

GOD’S hand of providence and protection on behalf of His people is evident
throughout the Book of Esther, though His name does not appear once.
Haman’s plot brings grave danger to the Jews and is countered by the courage of
beautiful Esther and the counsel of her wise cousin Mordecal, resulting in a great
deliverance. The Feast of Purim becomes an annual reminder of God’s faithfulness
on behalf of His people.
Esther’s Hebrew name was Hadassah, “Myrtle” (2:7), but her Persian name
Ester was derived from the Persian word for “Star” (Stara). The Greek title for this
book is Esther, and the Latin title is Hester.
 
 

The King Dethrones Queen Vashti

1

1 NOW it came to pass in the days of aAhasuerus1 (this was the Ahasuerus who reigned bover one hundred and twenty-seven provinces, cfrom India to Ethiopia),
2 in those days when King Ahasuerus asat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in bShushan1 the 2citadel,
3 that in the third year of his reign he amade a feast for all his officials and servants—the powers of Persia and Media, the nobles, and the princes of the provinces being before him—
4 when he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the splendor of his excellent majesty for many days, one hundred and eighty days in all.
5 And when these days were completed, the king made a feast lasting seven days for all the people who were present in 1Shushan the 2citadel, from great to small, in the court of the garden of the king’s palace.
6 There were white and blue linen curtains fastened with cords of fine linen and purple on silver rods and marble pillars; and the acouches were of gold and silver on a mosaic pavement of alabaster, turquoise, and white and black marble.
7 And they served drinks in golden vessels, each vessel being different from the other, with royal wine in abundance, aaccording to the 1generosity of the king.
8 In accordance with the law, the drinking was not compulsory; for so the king had ordered all the officers of his household, that they should do according to each man’s pleasure.
9 Queen Vashti also made a feast for the women in the royal palace which belonged to King Ahasuerus.
10 On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, aHarbona, Bigtha, Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, seven eunuchs

CHAPTER 1 References

1 aEzra 4:6;
Dan. 9:1
bEsth. 8:9
cDan. 6:1
1Generally
identified
with Xerxes I
(485–464 B.C.)
2 a1 Kin. 1:46
bNeh. 1:1;
Dan. 8:2 1Or
Susa 2Or fortified
palace,
and so elsewhere
in the
book
3 aGen. 40:20;
Esth. 2:18
5 1Or Susa
2palace
6 aEsth. 7:8;
Ezek. 23:41;
Amos 2:8; 6:4
7 aEsth. 2:18
1Lit. hand
10 aEsth. 7:9
13 aJer. 10:7;
Dan. 2:12;
Matt. 2:1
b1 Chr. 12:32
14 aEzra 7:14
b2 Kin. 25:19;
[Matt. 18:10] 1Lit. sat in
first place
17 a[Eph. 5:33] 19 aEsth. 8:8;
Dan. 6:8 1Lit.
word 2pass
away

who served in the presence of King Ahasuerus,
11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king, wearing her royal crown, in order to show her beauty to the people and the officials, for she was beautiful to behold.
12 But Queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s command brought by his eunuchs; therefore the king was furious, and his anger burned within him.
13 Then the king said to the awise men bwho understood the times (for this was the king’s manner toward all who knew law and justice,
14 those closest to him being Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the aseven princes of Persia and Media, bwho had access to the king’s presence, and who 1ranked highest in the kingdom):
15 “What shall we do to Queen Vashti, according to law, because she did not obey the command of King Ahasuerus brought to her by the eunuchs?”
16 And Memucan answered before the king and the princes: “Queen Vashti has not only wronged the king, but also all the princes, and all the people who are in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus.
17 “For the queen’s behavior will become known to all women, so that they will adespise their husbands in their eyes, when they report, ‘King Ahasuerus commanded Queen Vashti to be brought in before him, but she did not come.’
18 “This very day the noble ladies of Persia and Media will say to all the king’s officials that they have heard of the behavior of the queen. Thus there will be excessive contempt and wrath.
19 “If it pleases the king, let a royal 1decree go out from him, and let it be recorded in the laws of the Persians and the Medes, so that it will anot 2be altered, that Vashti shall come no more before King Ahasuerus; and let the king give her

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ESTHER 1:20

royal position to another who is better than she.
20 “When the king’s decree which he will make is proclaimed throughout all his empire (for it is great), all wives will ahonor their husbands, both great and small.”
21 And the reply pleased the king and the princes, and the king did according to the word of Memucan.
22 Then he sent letters to all the king’s provinces, ato each province in its own script, and to every people in their own language, that each man should bbe master in his own house, and speak in the language of his own people.

Esther Becomes Queen

2

1 After these things, when the wrath of King Ahasuerus subsided, he remembered Vashti, awhat she had done, and what had been decreed against her.
2 Then the king’s servants who attended him said: “Let beautiful young virgins be sought for the king;
3 “and let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather all the beautiful young virgins to 1Shushan the 2citadel, into the women’s quarters, under the custody of 3Hegai the king’s eunuch, custodian of the women. And let beauty preparations be given them.
4 “Then let the young woman who pleases the king be queen instead of Vashti.” This thing pleased the king, and he did so.
5 In 1Shushan the 2citadel there was a certain Jew whose name was Mordecai the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of aKish, a Benjamite.
6 aKish1 had been carried away from Jerusalem with the captives who had been captured with 2Jeconiah king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away.
7 And Mordecai had brought up Hadassah, that is, Esther, ahis uncle’s daughter, for she had neither father nor mother. The young woman was lovely and beautiful.When her father and mother died, Mordecai took her as his own daughter.
8 So it was, when the king’s command and decree were heard, and when many young women were agathered at 1Shushan the 2citadel, under the custody of Hegai, that Esther also was taken to the king’s palace, into the care of Hegai the custodian of the women.
9 Now the young woman pleased him, and she obtained his favor; so he readily gave abeauty preparations to her, besides 1her allowance. Then seven choice maidservants were provided for her from the king’s palace,

20 a[Eph. 5:33;
Col. 3:18;
1 Pet. 3:1] 22 aEsth. 3:12;
8:9 b[Eph.
5:22–24;
1 Tim. 2:12]

CHAPTER 2 References

1 aEsth. 1:19,
20
3 1Or Susa
2palace 2Heb.
Hege
5 a1 Sam. 9:1
1Or Susa
2palace
6 a2 Kin.
24:14, 15;
2 Chr. 36:10,
20; Jer. 24:1
1Lit.Who 2Jehoiachin,
2 Kin. 24:6
7 aEsth. 2:15
8 aEsth. 2:3
1Or Susa
2palace
9 aEsth. 2:3, 12
1Lit. her portions
10 aEsth. 2:20
1Revealed the
identity of
15 aEsth. 2:7;
9:29 bEsth.
5:2, 8
17 aEsth. 1:11
18 aEsth. 1:3
1Lit. hand
20 aEsth. 2:10;
[Prov. 22:6] 21 1Bigthana,
Esth. 6:2

and he moved her and her maidservants to the best place in the house of the women.
10 aEsther had not 1revealed her people or family, for Mordecai had charged her not to reveal it.
11 And every day Mordecai paced in front of the court of the women’s quarters, to learn of Esther’s welfare and what was happening to her.
12 Each young woman’s turn came to go in to King Ahasuerus after she had completed twelve months’ preparation, according to the regulations for the women, for thus were the days of their preparation apportioned: six months with oil of myrrh, and six months with perfumes and preparations for beautifying women.
13 Thus prepared, each young woman went to the king, and she was given whatever she desired to take with her from the women’s quarters to the king’s palace.
14 In the evening she went, and in the morning she returned to the second house of the women, to the custody of Shaashgaz, the king’s eunuch who kept the concubines. She would not go in to the king again unless the king delighted in her and called for her by name.
15 Now when the turn came for Esther athe daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai, who had taken her as his daughter, to go in to the king, she requested nothing but what Hegai the king’s eunuch, the custodian of the women, advised. And Esther bobtained favor in the sight of all who saw her.
16 So Esther was taken to King Ahasuerus, into his royal palace, in the tenth month, which is the month of Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign.
17 The king loved Esther more than all the other women, and she obtained grace and favor in his sight more than all the virgins; so he set the royal acrown upon her head and made her queen instead of Vashti.
18 Then the king amade a great feast, the Feast of Esther, for all his officials and servants; and he proclaimed a holiday in the provinces and gave gifts according to the 1generosity of a king.

Mordecai Discovers a Plot

19 When virgins were gathered together a second time, Mordecai sat within the king’s gate.
20 aNow Esther had not revealed her family and her people, just as Mordecai had charged her, for Esther obeyed the command of Mordecai as when she was brought up by him.
21 In those days,while Mordecai sat within the king’s gate, two of the king’s eunuchs, 1Bigthan and Teresh, doorkeepers, became furious and

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sought to lay hands on King Ahasuerus.
22 So the matter became known to Mordecai, awho told Queen Esther, and Esther informed the king in Mordecai’s name.
23 And when an inquiry was made into the matter, it was confirmed, and both were hanged on a gallows; and it was written in athe book of the chronicles in the presence of the king.

Haman’s Conspiracy Against the Jews

3

1 After these things King Ahasuerus promoted Haman, the son of Hammedatha the aAgagite, and badvanced him and set his seat above all the princes who were with him.
2 And all the king’s servants who were awithin the king’s gate bowed and paid homage to Haman, for so the king had commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bwould not bow or pay homage.
3 Then the king’s servants who were within the king’s gate said to Mordecai, “Why do you transgress the aking’s command?”
4 Now it happened, when they spoke to him daily and he would not listen to them, that they told it to Haman, to see whether Mordecai’s words would stand; for Mordecai had told them that he was a Jew.
5 When Haman saw that Mordecai adid not bow or pay him homage, Haman was bfilled with wrath.
6 But he disdained to lay hands on Mordecai alone, for they had told him of the people of Mordecai. Instead, Haman asought to destroy all the Jews who were throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus— the people of Mordecai.
7 In the first month, which is the month of Nisan, in the twelfth year of King Ahasuerus, athey cast Pur (that is, the lot), before Haman 1to determine the day and the 2month, 3until it fell on the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar.
8 Then Haman said to King Ahasuerus, “There is a certain people scattered and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of your kingdom; atheir laws are different from all other people’s, and they do not keep the king’s laws. Therefore it is not fitting for the king to let them remain.
9 “If it pleases the king, let a decree be written that they be destroyed, and I will pay ten thousand talents of silver into the hands of those who do the work, to bring it into the king’s treasuries.”
10 So the king atook bhis signet ring from his hand and gave it to Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the cenemy of the Jews.

22 aEsth. 6:1, 2
23 aEsth. 6:1

CHAPTER 3 References

1 aNum. 24:7;
1 Sam. 15:8
bEsth. 5:11
2 aEsth. 2:19,
21; 5:9 bEsth.
3:5; Ps. 15:4
3 aEsth. 3:2
5 aEsth. 3:2;
5:9 bDan. 3:19
6 aPs. 83:4;
[Rev. 12:1–17] 7 aEsth.
9:24–26 1Lit.
from day to
day and
month to
month 2LXX
adds to destroy
the
people of
Mordecai in
one day; Vg.
adds the nation
of the
Jews should
be destroyed
3So with MT,
Vg.; LXX and
the lot fell on
the fourteenth
of the
month
8 aEzra
4:12–15; Acts
16:20, 21
10 aGen. 41:42
bEsth. 8:2, 8
cEsth. 7:6
12 aEsth. 8:9
bEsth. 1:22
c1 Kin. 21:8;
Esth. 8:8–10
13 a2 Chr. 30:6;
Esth. 8:10, 14
bEsth. 8:12
cEsth. 8:11;
9:10 1LXX
adds the text
of the letter
here
14 aEsth. 8:13,
14
15 aEsth. 8:15;
[Prov. 29:2] 1Or Susa
2palace 3in
confusion

CHAPTER 4 References

1 a2 Sam. 1:11;
Esth. 3:8–10;
Jon. 3:5, 6
bJosh. 7:6;
Ezek. 27:30
cGen. 27:34
1Lit. Mordecai
7 aEsth. 3:9
8 aEsth. 3:14,
15

ESTHER 4:8

11 And the king said to Haman, “The money and the people are given to you, to do with them as seems good to you.”
12 aThen the king’s scribes were called on the thirteenth day of the first month, and a decree was written according to all that Haman commanded—to the king’s satraps, to the governors who were over each province, to the officials of all people, to every province baccording to its script, and to every people in their language. cIn the name of King Ahasuerus it was written, and sealed with the king’s signet ring.
13 And the letters were asent by couriers into all the king’s provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate all the Jews, both young and old, little children and women, bin one day, on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar, and cto plunder their 1possessions.
14 aA copy of the document was to be issued as law in every province, being published for all people, that they should be ready for that day.
15 The couriers went out, hastened by the king’s command; and the decree was proclaimed in 1Shushan the 2citadel. So the king and Haman sat down to drink, but athe city of Shushan was 3perplexed.

Esther Agrees to Help the Jews

4

1 When Mordecai learned all that had happened, 1he atore his clothes and put on sackcloth band ashes, and went out into the midst of the city. He ccried out with a loud and bitter cry.
2 He went as far as the front of the king’s gate, for no one might enter the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth.
3 And in every province where the king’s command and decree arrived, there was great mourning among the Jews, with fasting, weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes.
4 So Esther’s maids and eunuchs came and told her, and the queen was deeply distressed. Then she sent garments to clothe Mordecai and take his sackcloth away from him, but he would not accept them.
5 Then Esther called Hathach, one of the king’s eunuchs whom he had appointed to attend her, and she gave him a command concerning Mordecai, to learn what and why this was.
6 So Hathach went out to Mordecai in the city square that was in front of the king’s gate.
7 And Mordecai told him all that had happened to him, and athe sum of money that Haman had promised to pay into the king’s treasuries to destroy the Jews.
8 He also gave him aa copy of the

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ESTHER 4:9

written decree for their destruction, which was given at 1Shushan, that he might show it to Esther and explain it to her, and that he might command her to go in to the king to make supplication to him and plead before him for her people.
9 So Hathach returned and told Esther the words of Mordecai.
10 Then Esther spoke to Hathach, and gave him a command for Mordecai:
11 “All the king’s servants and the people of the king’s provinces know that any man or woman who goes into athe inner court to the king, who has not been called, bhe has but one law: put all to death, except the one cto whom the king holds out the golden scepter, that he may live. Yet I myself have not been dcalled to go in to the king these thirty days.”
12 So they told Mordecai Esther’s words.
13 And Mordecai told them to answer Esther: “Do not think in your heart that you will escape in the king’s palace any more than all the other Jews.
14 “For if you remain completely silent at this time, relief and deliverance will arise for the Jews from another place, but you and your father’s house will perish. Yet who knows whether you have come to the kingdom for such a time as this?”
15 Then Esther told them to reply to Mordecai:
16 “Go, gather all the Jews who are present in 1Shushan, and fast for me; neither eat nor drink for athree days, night or day. My maids and I will fast likewise. And so I will go to the king, which is against the law; band if I perish, I perish!”
17 So Mordecai went his way and did according to all that Esther commanded 1him.

Esther’s Banquet

5

1 Now it happened aon the third day that Esther put on her royal robes and stood in bthe inner court of the king’s palace, across from the king’s house, while the king sat on his royal throne in the royal house, facing the entrance of the 1house.
2 So it was, when the king saw Queen Esther standing in the court, that ashe found favor in his sight, and bthe king held out to Esther the golden scepter that was in his hand. Then Esther went near and touched the top of the scepter.
3 And the king said to her, “What do you wish, Queen Esther? What is your request? aIt shall be given to you—up to half the kingdom!”
4 So Esther answered, “If it pleases the king, let the king and Haman come today to the banquet that I have prepared for him.”
5 Then the king said, “Bring Ha-

8 1Or Susa
11 aEsth. 5:1;
6:4 bDan. 2:9
cEsth. 5:2; 8:4
dEsth. 2:14
16 aEsth. 5:1
bGen. 43:14
1Or Susa
17 1LXX adds
a prayer of
Mordecai
here

CHAPTER 5 References

1 aEsth. 4:16
bEsth. 4:11;
6:4 1LXX
adds many
extra details
in vv. 1, 2
2 a[Prov. 21:1] bEsth. 4:11;
8:4
3 aEsth. 7:2;
Mark 6:23
6 aEsth. 7:2
bEsth. 9:12
8 aEsth. 6:14
1Lit. to do
9 a[Job 20:5;
Luke 6:25] bEsth. 3:5
10 a2 Sam.
13:22
11 aEsth.
9:7–10 bEsth.
3:1
14 aEsth. 7:9
bEsth. 6:4
cEsth. 7:10
1Lit. tree or
wood 2About
75 feet

man quickly, that he may do as Esther has said.” So the king and Haman went to the banquet that Esther had prepared.
6 At the banquet of wine athe king said to Esther, b“What is your petition? It shall be granted you. What is your request, up to half the kingdom? It shall be done!”
7 Then Esther answered and said, “My petition and request is this:
8 “If I have found favor in the sight of the king, and if it pleases the king to grant my petition and 1fulfill my request, then let the king and Haman come to the abanquet which I will prepare for them, and tomorrow I will do as the king has said.”

Haman’s Plot Against Mordecai

9 So Haman went out that day ajoyful and with a glad heart; but when Haman saw Mordecai in the king’s gate, and bthat he did not stand or tremble before him, he was filled with indignation against Mordecai.
10 Nevertheless Haman arestrained himself and went home, and he sent and called for his friends and his wife Zeresh.
11 Then Haman told them of his great riches, athe multitude of his children, everything in which the king had promoted him, and how he had badvanced him above the officials and servants of the king.
12 Moreover Haman said, “Besides, Queen Esther invited no one but me to come in with the king to the banquet that she prepared; and tomorrow I am again invited by her, along with the king.
13 “Yet all this avails me nothing, so long as I see Mordecai the Jew sitting at the king’s gate.”
14 Then his wife Zeresh and all his friends said to him, “Let a agallows1 be made, 2fifty cubits high, and in the morning bsuggest to the king that Mordecai be hanged on it; then go merrily with the king to the banquet.” And the thing pleased Haman; so he had cthe gallows made.

page 500

PSALM 53

Folly of the Godless, and the Restoration of Israel

To the Chief Musician. Set to “Mahalath.” A 1Contemplation of David.

1 THE afool has said in his heart, “There is no God.” They are corrupt, and have done abominable iniquity; bThere is none who does good.

2 God looks down from heaven upon the children of men, To see if there are any who understand, who aseek God.
3 Every one of them has turned aside; They have together become corrupt; There is none who does good, No, not one.

PSALM 53 References

title 1Heb.
Maschil
1 aPs. 10:4
bRom. 3:10–12
2 a[2 Chr. 15:2] 4 aJer. 4:22
5 aLev. 26:17,
36; Prov. 28:1
6 aPs. 14:7 1Or
His captive
people

4 Have the workers of iniquity ano knowledge, Who eat up my people as they eat bread, And do not call upon God?
5 aThere they are in great fear Where no fear was, For God has scattered the bones of him who encamps against you; You have put them to shame, Because God has despised them.

6 aOh, that the salvation of Israel would come out of Zion! When God brings back 1the captivity of His people, Let Jacob rejoice and Israel be glad.

 
 

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