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Rise & Fall of Israel’s Kingdom

(Category 7 of 16)

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Saul Resents David


1 Now when he had finished speaking to Saul, athe 1soul of Jonathan was knit to the soul of David, band Jonathan loved him as his own soul.
2 Saul took him that day, aand would not let him go home to his father’s house anymore.
3 Then Jonathan and David made a acovenant, because he loved him as his own soul.
4 And Jonathan took off the robe that was on him and gave it to David, with his armor, even to his sword and his bow and his belt.
5 So David went out wherever Saul sent him, and 1behaved wisely. And Saul set him over the men of war, and he was accepted in the sight of all the people and also in the sight of Saul’s servants.
6 Now it had happened as they were coming home, when David was returning from the slaughter of the 1Philistine, that athe women had come out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet King Saul, with tambourines, with joy, and with musical instruments.
7 So the women asang as they danced, and said:

b“Saul has slain his thousands,
And David his ten thousands.”

8 Then Saul was very angry, and the saying adispleased him; and he said, “They have ascribed to David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed only thousands. Now what more can he have but bthe kingdom?”
9 So Saul 1eyed David from that day forward.
10 And it happened on the next day that athe distressing spirit from God came upon Saul, band he prophesied inside the house. So David cplayed music with his hand, as at other times; dbut there was a spear in Saul’s hand.
11 And Saul acast the spear, for he said, “I will pin David to the wall!” But David escaped his presence twice.
12 Now Saul was aafraid of David, because bthe LORD was with him, but had cdeparted from Saul.
13 Therefore Saul removed him from 1his presence, and made him his captain over a thousand; and ahe went out and came in before the people.
14 And David behaved wisely in all his ways, and athe LORD was with him.
15 Therefore, when Saul saw that he behaved very wisely, he was afraid of him.
16 But aall Israel and Judah loved

CHAPTER 18 References

1 aGen. 44:30
b1 Sam. 20:17
1life of
Jonathan was
bound up
with the life
2 a1 Sam.
3 a1 Sam.
5 1Or prospered
6 aEx. 15:20,
21 1Philistines
7 aEx. 15:21
b1 Sam. 21:11;
8 aEccl. 4:4
b1 Sam. 15:28
9 1Viewed
with suspicion
10 a1 Sam.
16:14 b1 Sam.
19:24 c1 Sam.
16:23 d1 Sam.
19:9, 10
11 a1 Sam.
19:10; 20:33
12 a1 Sam.
18:15, 29
b1 Sam. 16:13,
18 c1 Sam.
16:14; 28:15
13 aNum.
27:17 1Lit.
14 aJosh. 6:27
16 a1 Sam.
17 a1 Sam.
14:49; 17:25
bNum. 32:20,
27, 29 c1 Sam.
18:21, 25
18 a2 Sam.
19 a2 Sam.
21:8 bJudg.
20 a1 Sam.
21 a1 Sam.
18:17 b1 Sam.
18:26 1be bait
24 1Lit.
According to
these words
25 aEx. 22:17
b1 Sam. 14:24
c1 Sam. 18:17
26 a1 Sam.
27 a1 Sam.
18:13 b2 Sam.
29 1all the
30 a2 Sam.

1 SAMUEL 18:30

David, because he went out and came in before them.

David Marries Michal

17 Then Saul said to David, “Here is my older daughter Merab; aI will give her to you as a wife. Only be valiant for me, and fight bthe LORD’s battles.” For Saul thought, c“Let my hand not be against him, but let the hand of the Philistines be against him.”
18 So David said to Saul, a“Who am I, and what is my life or my father’s family in Israel, that I should be son-in-law to the king?”
19 But it happened at the time when Merab, Saul’s daughter, should have been given to David, that she was given to aAdriel the bMeholathite as a wife.
20 aNow Michal, Saul’s daughter, loved David. And they told Saul, and the thing pleased him.
21 So Saul said, “I will give her to him, that she may 1be a snare to him, and that athe hand of the Philistines may be against him.” Therefore Saul said to David a second time, b“You shall be my son-inlaw today.”
22 And Saul commanded his servants, “Communicate with David secretly, and say, ‘Look, the king has delight in you, and all his servants love you. Now therefore, become the king’s son-in-law.’ ”
23 So Saul’s servants spoke those words in the hearing of David. And David said, “Does it seem to you a light thing to be a king’s son-in-law, seeing I am a poor and lightly esteemed man?”
24 And the servants of Saul told him, saying, 1“In this manner David spoke.”
25 Then Saul said, “Thus you shall say to David: ‘The king does not desire any adowry but one hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to take bvengeance on the king’s enemies.’ ” But Saul cthought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.
26 So when his servants told David these words, it pleased David well to become the king’s son-in-law. Now athe days had not expired;
27 therefore David arose and went, he and ahis men, and killed two hundred men of the Philistines. And bDavid brought their foreskins, and they gave them in full count to the king, that he might become the king’s son-in-law. Then Saul gave him Michal his daughter as a wife.
28 Thus Saul saw and knew that the LORD was with David, and that Michal, Saul’s daughter, loved him;
29 and Saul was still more afraid of David. So Saul became David’s enemy 1continually.
30 Then the princes of the Philistines awent out to war. And so it was, whenever they went out, that David

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1 SAMUEL 19:1

bbehaved more wisely than all the servants of Saul, so that his name became highly esteemed.

Saul Persecutes David


1 Now Saul spoke to Jonathan his son and to all his servants, that they should kill aDavid; but Jonathan, Saul’s son, bdelighted greatly in David.
2 So Jonathan told David, saying, “My father Saul seeks to kill you. Therefore please be on your guard until morning, and stay in a secret place and hide.
3 “And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where you are, and I will speak with my father about you. Then what I observe, I will tell ayou.”
4 Thus Jonathan aspoke well of David to Saul his father, and said to him, “Let not the king bsin against his servant, against David, because he has not sinned against you, and because his works have been very good toward you.
5 “For he took his alife in his hands and bkilled the Philistine, and cthe LORD brought about a great deliverance for all Israel.You saw it and rejoiced. dWhy then will you esin against innocent blood, to kill David without a cause?”
6 So Saul heeded the voice of Jonathan, and Saul swore, “As the LORD lives, he shall not be killed.”
7 Then Jonathan called David, and Jonathan told him all these things. So Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence aas in times past.
8 And there was war again; and David went out and fought with the Philistines, aand struck them with a mighty blow, and they fled from him.
9 Now athe distressing spirit from the LORD came upon Saul as he sat in his house with his spear in his hand. And David was playing music with his hand.
10 Then Saul sought to pin David to the wall with the spear, but he slipped away from Saul’s presence; and he drove the spear into the wall. So David fled and escaped that night.
11 aSaul also sent messengers to David’s house to watch him and to kill him in the morning. And Michal, David’s wife, told him, saying, “If you do not save your life tonight, tomorrow you will be killed.”
12 So Michal alet David down through a window. And he went and fled and escaped.
13 And Michal took 1an image and laid it in the bed, put a cover of goats’ hair for his head, and covered it with clothes.
14 So when Saul sent messengers to take David, she said, “He is sick.”
15 Then Saul sent the messengers back to see David, saying, “Bring

30 b1 Sam.

CHAPTER 19 References

1 a1 Sam. 8:8,
9 b1 Sam. 18:1
3 a1 Sam.
4 a1 Sam.
20:32; [Prov.
31:8, 9] bGen.
42:22; [Prov.
17:13]; Jer.
5 aJudg. 9:17;
12:3 b1 Sam.
17:49, 50
c1 Sam. 11:13;
1 Chr. 11:14
d1 Sam. 20:32
19:10–13] 7 a1 Sam.
16:21; 18:2,
10, 13
8 a1 Sam.
18:27; 23:5
9 a1 Sam.
16:14; 18:10,
11 aJudg. 16:2;
Ps. 59:title
12 aJosh. 2:15;
Acts 9:25;
2 Cor. 11:33
13 1household
idols, Heb.
17 a2 Sam.
18 a1 Sam.
16:13 b1 Sam.
20 a1 Sam.
19:11, 14;
John 7:32
b1 Sam. 10:5,
6, 10; [1 Cor.
14:3, 24, 25] cNum. 11:25;
Joel 2:28
23 a1 Sam.
24 aIs. 20:2
bMic. 1:8
c1 Sam.

CHAPTER 20 References

3 a1 Sam. 27:1;
2 Kin. 2:6

him up to me in the bed, that I may kill him.”
16 And when the messengers had come in, there was the image in the bed, with a cover of goats’ hair for his head.
17 Then Saul said to Michal, “Why have you deceived me like this, and sent my enemy away, so that he has escaped?” And Michal answered Saul, “He said to me, ‘Let me go! aWhy should I kill you?’ ”
18 So David fled and escaped, and went to aSamuel at bRamah, and told him all that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and stayed in Naioth.
19 Now it was told Saul, saying, “Take note, David is at Naioth in Ramah!”
20 Then aSaul sent messengers to take David. bAnd when they saw the group of prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as leader over them, the Spirit of God came upon the messengers of Saul, and they also cprophesied.
21 And when Saul was told, he sent other messengers, and they prophesied likewise. Then Saul sent messengers again the third time, and they prophesied also.
22 Then he also went to Ramah, and came to the great well that is at Sechu. So he asked, and said, “Where are Samuel and David?” And someone said, “Indeed they are at Naioth in Ramah.”
23 So he went there to Naioth in Ramah. Then athe Spirit of God was upon him also, and he went on and prophesied until he came to Naioth in Ramah.
24 aAnd he also stripped off his clothes and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay down bnaked all that day and all that night. Therefore they say, c“Is Saul also among the prophets?”

Jonathan’s Loyalty to David


1 Then David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and went and said to Jonathan, “What have I done? What is my iniquity, and what is my sin before your father, that he seeks my life?”
2 So Jonathan said to him, “By no means! You shall not die! Indeed,my father will do nothing either great or small without first telling me. And why should my father hide this thing from me? It is not so!”
3 Then David took an oath again, and said, “Your father certainly knows that I have found favor in your eyes, and he has said, ‘Do not let Jonathan know this, lest he be grieved.’ But atruly, as the LORD lives and as your soul lives, there is but a step between me and death.”
4 So Jonathan said to David,

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“Whatever you yourself desire, I will do it for you.”
5 And David said to Jonathan, “Indeed tomorrow is the aNew Moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king to eat. But let me go, that I may bhide in the field until the third day at evening.
6 “If your father misses me at all, then say, ‘David earnestly asked permission of me that he might run over ato Bethlehem, his city, for there is a yearly sacrifice there for all the family.’
7 a“If he says thus: ‘It is well,’ your servant will be safe. But if he is very angry, be sure that bevil is determined by him.
8 “Therefore you shall adeal kindly with your servant, for byou have brought your servant into a covenant of the LORD with you. Nevertheless, cif there is iniquity in me, kill me yourself, for why should you bring me to your father?”
9 But Jonathan said, “Far be it from you! For if I knew certainly that evil was determined by my father to come upon you, then would I not tell you?”
10 Then David said to Jonathan, “Who will tell me, or what if your father answers you roughly?”
11 And Jonathan said to David, “Come, let us go out into the field.” So both of them went out into the field.
12 Then Jonathan said to David: “The LORD God of Israel is witness! When I have 1sounded out my father sometime tomorrow, or the third day, and indeed there is good toward David, and I do not send to you and tell you,
13 “may athe LORD do so and much more to Jonathan. But if it pleases my father to do you evil, then I will report it to you and send you away, that you may go in safety. And bthe LORD be with you as He has cbeen with my father.
14 “And you shall not only show me the kindness of the LORD while I still live, that I may not die;
15 “but ayou shall not 1cut off your kindness from my 2house forever, no, not when the LORD has cut off every one of the enemies of David from the face of the earth.”
16 So Jonathan made a covenant with the 1house of David, saying, a“Let the LORD require it at the hand of David’s enemies.”
17 Now Jonathan again caused David to vow, because he loved him; afor he loved him as he loved his own soul.
18 Then Jonathan said to David, a“Tomorrow is the New Moon; and you will be missed, because your seat will be empty.
19 “And when you have stayed three days, go down quickly and

5 aNum. 10:10;
b1 Sam.
19:2, 3
6 a1 Sam. 16:4;
17:12; John
7 aDeut. 1:23;
2 Sam. 17:4
b1 Sam. 25:17;
Esth. 7:7
8 aJosh. 2:14
b1 Sam. 18:3;
20:16; 23:18
c2 Sam. 14:32
12 1searched
13 aRuth 1:17;
1 Sam. 3:17
bJosh. 1:5;
1 Sam. 17:37;
18:12; 1 Chr.
22:11, 16
c1 Sam. 10:7
15 a1 Sam.
24:21; 2 Sam.
9:1, 3, 7; 21:7
1stop being
kind 2family
16 aDeut.
23:21; 1 Sam.
25:22; 31:2;
2 Sam. 4:7;
21:8 1family
17 a1 Sam.
18 a1 Sam.
20:5, 24
19 a1 Sam.
21 aJer. 4:2
23 a1 Sam.
20:14, 15
25 1So with
MT, Syr., Tg.,
Vg.; LXX he
sat across
26 aLev. 7:20,
21; 15:5
28 a1 Sam.
31 1Lit. is a
son of death
32 aGen. 31:36;
1 Sam. 19:5;
[Prov. 31:9];
Matt. 27:23;
Luke 23:22
33 a1 Sam.
18:11; 19:10
b1 Sam. 20:7
1strike him

1 SAMUEL 20:34

come to athe place where you hid on the day of the deed; and remain by the stone Ezel.
20 “Then I will shoot three arrows to the side, as though I shot at a target;
21 “and there I will send a lad, saying, ‘Go, find the arrows.’ If I expressly say to the lad, ‘Look, the arrows are on this side of you; get them and come’—then, aas the LORD lives, there is safety for you and no harm.
22 “But if I say thus to the young man, ‘Look, the arrows are beyond you’—go your way, for the LORD has sent you away.
23 “And as for athe matter which you and I have spoken of, indeed the LORD be between you and me forever.”
24 Then David hid in the field. And when the New Moon had come, the king sat down to eat the feast.
25 Now the king sat on his seat, as at other times, on a seat by the wall. And 1Jonathan arose, and Abner sat by Saul’s side, but David’s place was empty.
26 Nevertheless Saul did not say anything that day, for he thought, “Something has happened to him; he is unclean, surely he is aunclean.”
27 And it happened the next day, the second day of the month, that David’s place was empty. And Saul said to Jonathan his son, “Why has the son of Jesse not come to eat, either yesterday or today?”
28 So Jonathan aanswered Saul, “David earnestly asked permission of me to go to Bethlehem.
29 “And he said, ‘Please let me go, for our family has a sacrifice in the city, and my brother has commanded me to be there. And now, if I have found favor in your eyes, please let me get away and see my brothers.’ Therefore he has not come to the king’s table.”
30 Then Saul’s anger was aroused against Jonathan, and he said to him, “You son of a perverse, rebellious woman! Do I not know that you have chosen the son of Jesse to your own shame and to the shame of your mother’s nakedness?
31 “For as long as the son of Jesse lives on the earth, you shall not be established, nor your kingdom. Now therefore, send and bring him to me, for he 1shall surely die.”
32 And Jonathan answered Saul his father, and said to him, a“Why should he be killed? What has he done?”
33 Then Saul acast a spear at him to 1kill him, bby which Jonathan knew that it was determined by his father to kill David.
34 So Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and ate no food the second day of the month, for he was

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1 SAMUEL 20:35

grieved for David, because his father had treated him shamefully.
35 And so it was, in the morning, that Jonathan went out into the field at the time appointed with David, and a little lad was with him.
36 Then he said to his lad, “Now run, find the arrows which I shoot.” As the lad ran, he shot an arrow beyond him.
37 When the lad had come to the place where the arrow was which Jonathan had shot, Jonathan cried out after the lad and said, “Is not the arrow beyond you?”
38 And Jonathan cried out after the lad, “Make haste, hurry, do not delay!” So Jonathan’s lad gathered up the arrows and came back to his master.
39 But the lad did not know anything. Only Jonathan and David knew of the matter.
40 Then Jonathan gave his 1weapons to his lad, and said to him, “Go, carry them to the city.”
41 As soon as the lad had gone, David arose from a place toward the south, fell on his face to the ground, and bowed down three times. And they kissed one another; and they wept together, but David more so.
42 Then Jonathan said to David, a“Go in peace, since we have both sworn in the name of the LORD, saying, ‘May the LORD be between you and me, and between your descendants and my descendants, forever.’ ” So he arose and departed, and Jonathan went into the city.

40 1equipment
42 a1 Sam.

page 518


Prayer to Frustrate Conspiracy Against Israel

A Song. A Psalm of Asaph.

1 DOa not keep silent, O God! Do not hold Your peace, And do not be still, O God!
2 For behold, aYour enemies make a 1tumult; And those who hate You have 2lifted up their head.
3 They have taken crafty counsel against Your people, And consulted together aagainst Your sheltered ones.
4 They have said, “Come, and alet us cut them off from being a nation, That the name of Israel may be remembered no more.”

5 For they have consulted together with one 1consent; They 2form a confederacy against You:
6 aThe tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites; Moab and the Hagrites;
7 Gebal, Ammon, and Amalek; Philistia with the inhabitants of Tyre;
8 Assyria also has joined with them; They have helped the children of Lot. Selah

PSALM 83 References

1 aPs. 28:1
2 aPs. 81:15
1uproar 2Exalted
3 a[Ps. 27:5] 4 aJer. 11:19;
5 1Lit. heart
2Lit. cut a
6 a2 Chr. 20:1,
10, 11
9 aJudg. 7:22
4:15–24; 5:20,
10 aZeph. 1:17
11 aJudg. 7:25
bJudg. 8:12–21
13 aIs. 17:13
bPs. 35:5
14 aDeut.
17 1ashamed
18 aPs. 59:13
bEx. 6:3 c[Ps.

9 Deal with them as with aMidian, As with bSisera, As with Jabin at the Brook Kishon,
10 Who perished at En Dor, aWho became as refuse on the earth.
11 Make their nobles like aOreb and like Zeeb, Yes, all their princes like bZebah and Zalmunna,
12 Who said, “Let us take for ourselves The pastures of God for a possession.”

13 aO my God, make them like the whirling dust, bLike the chaff before the wind!
14 As the fire burns the woods, And as the flame asets the mountains on fire,
15 So pursue them with Your tempest, And frighten them with Your storm.
16 Fill their faces with shame, That they may seek Your name, O LORD.
17 Let them be 1confounded and dismayed forever; Yes, let them be put to shame and perish,
18 aThat they may know that You, whose bname alone is the LORD, Are cthe Most High over all the earth.




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